Reactant 5 molarity HNO3 with CaO reactant particles



Environmental Impacts- Petrodiesel
Habitat and land destruction
Potential for oil spills as it needs to be transported Biodiesel
Potentially carbon neutral, produces less CO2
Can be produced from waste products, Requires a lot of water to grow and wash the crops required to produce he oils, also biodegradable

Biofuel- Advantages–>

  Renewable – Net lower emissions of CO2  Disadvantages–>
Production of CO2 – Lower energy content -Uses up arable land and resources for food crops 


High energy content – Easily obtained and utilized – Extensive existing
infrastructure and industry  Disadvantages–
> – Non-renewable and limited – Production of CO2, SO2, NO – Wildlife, habitat,


The resistance to flow of a substance at a particular temperature


Salt bridge

Donates ions to each half cell to balances the charges and prevent the accumulation of charge in each half cell. This is necessary early to allow current to keep flowing 

External wire

This carries electrons from the anode to the cathode. It facilitates the movement of electrons and allows electricity to be produced


  Inert  unreactive to not participate and interfere with reactions occurring at electrodes  Conductive  facilitate the movement of electrons and charge to conduct electricity Porous  provide a large surface area for which redox reactant can occur thereby increasing the rate at which electrons are donated and accepted. This increases cell efficiency and allows for greater power output for the cell  Porous  to allow gaseous reactants to diffuse through them and more easily come into contact with the electrolyte where they can react  Catalysts  to speed up the rate of the redox reactions occurring at the cell, this thereby increases the power output of the cell

CH4+2H20–>CO2 8H+ + 8e-

Difficulty storing Hydrogen • Colorless and odorless therefore very difficult to detect any leaks • Highly flammable and explosive in air (readily reacts with oxygen) • Hydrogen can be compressed and stored in high pressure tanks or can be liquified and stored in highly insulated tanks. (Logistically difficult)

( load )


Membrane fucntion–> Allows ions to go through

Factors that limit battery life

Side reaction-

Spontaneous reactions that occurs at electrodes and consume reactants–> reducing amount available for recharge–> decreased battery life

Temperature- High temp-> increase rate of side reaction–> decreased reactants Low temp–>
Cause reactants to crystalize–> reactants cant react



Leakage of reactants–> decreased available reactants for recharge


Increasing the surface area, increases the amount of exposed reactant particles that are in contact. As more reactant particles and in contact, there’s an increased frequency of collisions. As there’s an increased frequency of collisions, there’s also an increased frequency of successful collisions that occur thereby resulting in a higher rate of reaction


Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

1. Presence of CO causes in ↑[CO], thereby favouring net forwards reaction of reaction 2 (higher K value) to produce carboxyhemoglobin 2. Oxygen is unable to travel around to cells resulting to dizziness, headaches, and potentially death Treatment
1. Remove patient from source of CO thereby ↑ [CO], favouring a net reverse reaction for reaction 2 2. Exposure to pure Oxygen, thereby ↑ [O2], favoring a net forward reaction for reaction 1 to produce oxyhaemoglobin to transport O2 around body


 If QQCC = KKCC, then system is at equilibrium  If QQCC > KKCC, then system shifts to the left to favour backwards reaction and produce more reactants, thereby decreasing QQCC so equilibrium is reached  If QQCC < KKCC, then system shifts to the right to favour forwards reaction and produce more products, thereby increasing QQCC so equilibrium is reached


Water is present in the solution – water is a stronger oxidant than Na+ ions, therefore will be reduced preferentially to the ions. – This results in Na+ ions not being reduced hence no sodium being formed when using this aqueous electrolyte.




different spatial orientation


A pair of non-superimposable of one- differ the way they reflect light- reflected planted direction (each chiral center has 2 enantiomers)


Boiling point-

The minimum temperature at which a substance changes state from a liquid to a gas.

The minimum temperature at which a substance produces sufficient vapour to ignite provided an ignition source


Strong broad band at 3300 cm OH (alcohol) ,Strong broad at 3000 cm OH (acid). Strong narrow at 1750cm C=O (acid/ aldehyde/ ketone/ ester) ,Twin fangs peak at 3300 cm NH (amine), Strong sharp narrow at 3000cm CH (all molecules)


observing the magnetic field around nuclei, odd number of protons or neutrons to produce electron spin


Quartet + triplet in the same spectrum then CH3CH2-R


Stationary phase

The solid to which mixture adsorbs to Mobile phase
The solvent which carries components of the mixture through stationary phase Adsorption how well the components adsorb onto stationary phase Desorption how well the component dissolves into mobile phase

Retention time

 The amount of time it takes for substance to pass through column and is used to separate and identity the different components in the mixture  A component more adsorbed to the stationary phase has longer retention time  A component less adsorbed to stationary phase has short retention time
Identity and composition of stationary phase  different effect on polar and non-polar  Identity and composition of mobile phase  different effect on polar and non-polar  Length of column  might take longer for component to pass  Temperature  solubility increases with temperature, dissolve readily into mobile phase  Pressure of mobile flow  Surface area of stationary phase  greater surface area allows to achieve greater separation of components

Stationary phase:

– Polar molecules elute faster
– Non-polar molecules elute slower


Burette Solution

Titrant (solution it will contain)


Final rinsing with distilled water could lead to overestimation.

Conical Flask Solution

Distilled water Effect
Does not affect final concentration Pipette Solution
Aliquot (solution it will transfer)


Final rinsing with distilled water can lead to underestimation

Equivalence point:

reactants have reacted in their stoichiometric ratio Endpoint:
when indicator permanently changes colour




– When amino acid placed in neutral solution, it acts as a base and acid
becoming charged but remaining neutral. Charged but neutral

Acid–> (low pH) N+ Basic–> (high pH)O-


Glucose + glucose = maltose   glucose+frutose= sucrose  glucose galactose=lactose

Starch–> formed from a-glucose and main energy source in the body  Cellulose–> formed by b-glucose and forms structural components in cell wall of plants  Glycogen–> formed from a-glucose and storage of extra glucose in body


First stage:

Emulsification → Bile breaks down large fat globules into smaller fat droplets –

Second stage:

Hydrolysis → Lipases hydrolyze the triglycerides into 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule


Temperature change is less than expected
Mainly due to heat loss to the environment as system is complete energy transfer is not possible – More water used than stated – Less fuel used that stated
– Fuel was weighed when wet (containing moisture) and/or combusted when wet resulting in lower energy released

Temperature change is more than expected
Stirrer was not functioning properly → non-uniform distribution of heat – Less water used than stated – More fuel used that stated

Energy released in body less than energy released in calorimeter
Some components e.G. Cellulose cannot be broken down by the body – Food is not completely broken down in the body such as in a calorimeter

CF= Er/delta T