Socialization Use the term to describe a lifelong process in which you become integrated with your society.,We are constantly learning our society,We learn the norms and expectations, Both Absolute and Relative

Darkheim’s Social IntegrationWhen an individual is brought into society

AbsoluteEvery Society that ever existed socializes it’s kids

RelativeWhat you are being socialized into differs from society to society. Different periods of history. Gender roles and Social class are also relative.

3 Necessary Components of Socialization1) Language – Its important to learn a language by puberty unless it will be hard2) Human Interaction – You get socialized through interaction with other people3) Human Affection – People need to show love for you to make you want to be socialized.

Feral or wild childone that has been deprived of the three necessary components, biggest problem is the lack of language, They don’t get the Context on how to speak.

Noam ChomskySays we are all “Hard-wired” for language

Eric Lennebergsupported Chomsky; advanced the hypothesis of the critical period for language development

^ The “Critical Period” – when we must learn to use language and make connections with sound (Before Puberty)

Charles H. Cooley, Symbolic Interactionist, takes the side that we are social and that we want to be socialized

 The Looking Glass Process^ looking glass self – we adjust to make ourselves more pleasing in the eyes of other^ says that humans constantly alter their behavior to try to make themselves pleasant in the eyes of others This begins with non-verbal communication

Sigmund Freud believes we are not social by nature thus we fight the Socialization process, Freud believed all human beings are born with a part of a personality called ID.

Id , Super-ego, and ego (Freud)Id: your natural self or creative self?,selfish, anti-social self-preservation

Super-egoSocial Side, Cooperative, Social Conscience, Socialized into you (not natural),It is learned

*Egoeveryday self,device that makes you you,balances out the other two

Developmentalismsubtopic within Socialization, approach to the study of human beings, especially during the socialization process, we progress through stages of development,They are regular, progressive, and theoretically are universal, stages are biologically based or connected, predictable because every human goes though these stages

Different types of DevelopmentPiaget – Cognitive, Freud – Pyscho-sexual, Erickson – emotional

Jean Piaget theory on developmentalismcognitive development, over time we become more complex in our thinking skills, have to develop a capability, most respected, his theory has greatest universal applications

4 basic StagesBenjamin Bloom,  Taxonomy of Education objectives

Erik Erikson theory on developmentalismemotional development —> conflict resolution, have to solve a conflict (once we resolve we are ready for next stage) his theory is all about emotional development,at each stage, there is an emotional crisis for us,this must be resolved, this crisis is between social and anti-social behavior.

Sigmund Freud’s theory on developmentalism aetheist, Theory on Psycho-sexual Development, connection between pysche and sexual development, in other words, connection between mind and body

Errogenous zones – areas of body that is prone to or affected by sexual stimulation^ this experience can have an effect on adult behavior (neurotic or psychotic)

“Cartharsis” – when your mind goes back to that moment. You realize the traumatic experience.

Lawrence Kohlberg* Moral Development3 levels – each with two stages.1) Preconventional – (1) Fear of punishment (2) Reciprocity, 2) Conventional – (3) other-directed (4) authority – letter of the law (ex: Jim Crow Law), 3) Post Conventional ( not reached by most people) – (5) social contract – about spirit of law rather than law itself. (6) universal good – when taking into consideration good actions

Gender Roles (Traditional America)

Gender Roles- 7 differences: Believed in this during Classic Age1) Agression – aggressive behavior (Ex: father’s wrongly projecting their one month old son)2) Activity – For example, boys are encouraged to be more active and girls are not.3) Impulsivity – Boys are also more impulsive than girls4) Anxiety – Girls tend to manifest more anxiety than boys5) Social Relationships – Women tend to have smaller social groups while men don’t tend to define themselves by their social groups.6) Quality of self-concept – Girls worry more about self-image7) Achievement Related Behavior – women tend to aim less high when it comes to career goals,Socialization + Social Class,* Each social class raises their kids differently, most likely because of financial differences

 language – study By Basil Bernstein, speech codes” – realized different speech codes were used for the upper class, these were called elaborated speech codes. lower class – restricted speech codes, which means not as much information learned.

Children by age 3,Upper Class —-> 500,000 words or phrases of encouragement or positive comments. 80,000 phrases of discouragement., Lower Class —–> 75,000 words or positive comments. 200,000 discouragement phrases.

Socialization in History* There are three types of persons created throughout history

1) Tradition-Directed,you are socialized to follow ways of parents and grandparents, longest lived personality, 2) Inner Directed Person, The American Explorer, Frontiermans, and Industrialist,”The Rugged Individual” —-> Innovator, Inventoion, Example: Carnegie,3)Other-Directed Person, Post World War II, group oriented – individualism is replaced by cooperation

Robert K. Mertonsocialization in America has traditionally stressed 2 things:, 1 – to achieve success goals (example: “The American Dream”),2- to employ or use the “proper means” (honest hard work is the “proper means”)

* Anomie – structural stress or strain in a culture and neighborhood, then we start to ignore hard work and only focus on success goals., these peoples role models are criminals

Bernice Neugarten idea of the “Social clock”, social expectations – pressure

1) After Graduation —-> 1st Real Job2) Getting married —> By the 30s3) Having Children4) Retirement – 60s

Anticipatory SocializationRe-socialization – Have to learn new rules and new norms. Usually into a “total institution”, “total institution” – have complete control over people through laws and norms

George Foster – concept of “limited good” in pre-modern society,example: when god created the earth, just enough was created for every generation, tradition is opposite of progress

* Francis Fukuyama Wrote book called the Great Disruption: The Role of info tech and the info “Revolution”,idea of his theory was removing other-Directness to go back to inner-directness, ^ an example is facebook because it makes a person’s “virtual self”