Phases of Emigration in Galicia: Historical Overview

Phases of Emigration in Galicia: Part 1

  • Between 1860 and 1936, emigration from Galicia was mainly to Cuba, Argentina, and Brazil, with over half a million people leaving. The majority were young males aged 15 to 25.

  • After the Civil War, political exiles led emigration to Europe, particularly France, Russia, and Latin America.

  • From the 1950s onwards, emigration to Argentina and Venezuela resumed, with a slight increase in female migrants due to family reunification.

  • In the 1960s, emigration shifted to European countries like Switzerland, Germany, France, and others, with 80% of emigrants being men. Internal migrations were also observed, mainly to Catalonia, the Basque Country, and Madrid.

Phases of Emigration in Galicia: Part 2

  • From 1973, the oil crisis reduced emigration, but it increased again in 1977 before declining in 1982 due to economic crises and improved welfare in Spain.

  • From 1990, a new wave of emigration began due to the economic crisis of 2008, with a focus on younger individuals with higher education levels, leading to a phenomenon known as brain drain.

Urbanism of Ancient/Medieval/Industrial/Post-Industrial Cities: Part 1

In ancient times, cities like Greek polis and Roman cities followed orthogonal plans, with public spaces like agora and forum. Middle Ages saw cities grow around castles, while the industrial revolution transformed cities with planned residential neighborhoods.

Urbanism of Ancient/Medieval/Industrial/Post-Industrial Cities: Part 2

Post-industrial cities have expanded with new residential areas, relocation of industries, and improved transport networks, leading to the emergence of metropolitan areas and conurbations.