Gastritis Acute inflammatory process that occurs acutely in the gastric mucosa, may have endogenous or exogenous causes. Occurs due to increased gastric secretion, decreased production of bicarbonate and blood flow, disruption of the mucosal layer and direct injury to the epithelium. Demonstrations: Asymptomatic, abdominal pain, nausea and or vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding (Hematemesis and Melena) Gastritis Chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa with infiltration of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear lymphocytes. It features red and irregular mucosa. It may affect a focal region of the gastric mucosa or it may be diffuse. Diagnosis: histology of endoscopic biopsies. Etiology: H. Pylori Auto Immune; Gastrectomy; Alcoholism, smoking, irradiation, granulomatous diseases, use of NSAIDs. Symptoms: Asymptomatic, or nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain or discomfort. Consequences: metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma. Autoimmune Gastritis auto production parietal cell antibodies and intrinsic factor. Develop atrophy of the body and gastric fundus. Anemia is associated with Perninciosa. Peptic Ulcer Lesion excavated solitary, large and chronic gastrointestinal mucosa. Almost all cases occur in the stomach wall or duodenal bulb. The injury is due to digestion of the mucosa by gastric acid secretion in three conditions: Increased gastric acid secretion, reduction of local defenses, Association of the previous two. Clinical manifestations: abdominal pain or discomfort that improves after meals and tends to worsen during night. Complications: Gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation and obstruction. Stomach Ulcer Also known as acute stress ulcers. Are acute changes in the gastric mucosa caused by various causes. Generally not related to peptic ulcers, are small and are located diffusely through the gastric mucosa. Etiology: Stress States, use of NSAIDs, serious infections, shock tables; Head Trauma; Major surgery; High intake of alcohol.
Acute Tubular Necrosis There is drastic reduction in the flow of urine and the urine becomes dark. Caused by: State of shock, intravascular hemolysis (hemoglobinuria causing), myonecrosis (causing myoglobinuria). VI Microscopy: sloughing of necrotic cells in light and / or regenerative activity of the remaining cells. The regenerated cells with large nuclei, evident nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm and basophilic. The variation in nuclear size between neighboring tubular cells suggests regenerative activity. Mitoses observed. Tamm-Horsfall protein. Crystals of calcium oxalate (slices of pineapple). VT: extensive necrosis of tubular cells that slough off mass for the light. Regeneration with large nuclei, evident nucleoli, basophilic cytoplasm and mitoses. Pyelonephritis Causes: reflux nephropathy; Pielonerite acute uncomplicated, complicated UTI. Pyelonephritis Acute suppurative inflammation was observed, with infiltration of neutrophils, later macrophages and lymphocytes. There is necrosis of the kidney tubule cells. There may or may not form abscesses. Healing: fibrosação extensive in the affected regions.Chronic pyelonephritis: is diffuse interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate may form lymphoid follicles. There are tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, but the glomerular involvement is relatively mild, noting mainly fibrous thickening of the parietal sheet of Bowman’s capsule. Benign Renal Neoplasms: cortical adenoma, fibroma, angiomyolipoma, etc.. Malignancies: Renal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma or renal hypernephroma. More common in the upper pole. Pasta solitary, yellowish, with large necrotic areas. Microscopic papillary growth pattern, solid, trabecular or tubular. 70% clear cells. Carcinoma renal tumor is not evident on the outer surface, only the cutting surface. The yellow color is due to the accumulation of lipids in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells, giving them, in several cases, characteristic aspect of course. Hematuria. Metastases may take several years, even decades. Also classic is the tendency of the tumor invading the renal vein, and grow continuously through the inferior vena cava to the right atrium.

Bacterial cervicitis. Columnar metaplasia of the squamous epithelium. Obstruction of the opening of the endocervical glands with accumulation of mucus and formation of cysts Naboth. Presence of neutrophils and lymphocytes, there may be areas of epithelial erosion or ulceration.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma A malignant tumor of keratinocytes from the epidermis. It grows in a destructive way and metastasizes mainly via lymphatic system. Hyperkeratosis begins with small, slightly raised, warty, gray or brown, which grows with time. The growth can progress rapidly when there is extensive ulcerative necrosis.
Vulvar dystrophy vulvar disease – inflammatory vulvar lesions. They are: the lichen and sclerosing squamous hyperplasia. Bartholinite – cysts of Bartholin’s glands, with subsequent infection. Condylomata acuminata – Injury raised, warty. Solitary or multiple, sometimes coalescing; arboriform proliferation and branching of the epithelium, associated with koilocytosis.
Endometrial Hyperplasia Hyperplasia simple – glands of different sizes, some cystic dilated with a large amount of stroma between the glands. Complex hyperplasia without atypia – Increase in number and size of glands with irregular shapes and finger-like projections. Nests packed glands with pseudostratified epithelium, but without significant cytologic atypia. Complex hyperplasia with atypia: gland crowding and complexity; coating with irregular epithelial stratification, cellular atypia (cytomegalovirus, nucleoli, hyperchromasia).
Endometrial Carcinoma: Mostly adenocarcinoma, invasive neoplasia; peak between 55 and 65. Factors related to obesity, diabetes, hypertension and infertility.
Pathology Uterine fibroids – benign neoplasms originating in the smooth muscle of the myometrium (swirling bundles of myocytes). These are tumors that occur in most women. They have a relationship with estrogen. Tumors hard, well defined and color from gray to white. Submucosal, intramural and subserosal. Degeneration: hyaline, red (fleshy), and calcification.
Ovarian Cysts Pathology neoplastic and non-functional: i NCLua cystic follicles (up to 2.0 cm) and follicular cysts – non-ruptured ovarian follicles or broke and immediately sealed. Luteum cysts, luteinized granulosa cells.
Ovarian stromal tumors – surface epithelium (serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and transitional cell – Tumor Brenner) tumors of the sex cord – stromal (granulosa cells – stromal cells Sertolli – stroma, others) Germ cell tumors (teratoma, dysgerminoma, yolk sac tumor, others) serous tumors: common neoplasms, cystic, lined by columnar epithelial cells and containing serous fluid inside. Benign forms (cystadenoma), borderline and malignant (cistoadenocarcinoma). Mucinous tumors, similar to serous, cystic masses are larger. Multiloculated tumors containing gelatinous and sticky liquid. Benign, borderline and malignant. Standards intestinal and endocervical. Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Teratomas: mature (cystic, ectodermal differentiation of pluripotent cells), immature (immature embryonic fetal tissue) and monodérmicos (specialized – ovarian struma ovarii and carcinoid)
Polyps tumor mass that protrudes into the lumen of the intestine, originating from within the mucosa. Non-neoplastic: maturation of the abnormal mucosa (results from inflammation, etc.). Hamartomatous: commonly found in children. Hardly evolves with malignancy. Tubular adenomas, pedunculated, more than 75% villous architecture tubular adenomas, sessile, more than 50% villous architecture (1% of cases), tubulo-villous adenomas: Contains 25 to 50% villous architecture ( 50 to 10%) Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (chromosome 19), hamartomatous polyps, colorectal cancer moderate risk. More common in children. PAF: numerous adenomatous polyps, cancer often close to 100% of Gardner syndrome: variant of PAF, coexists with multiple osteomas, epidermal cysts and fibromatosis Turcot syndrome: intestinal adenomatous polyposis and CNS tumors (gliomas) Ca . in situ, severe dysplasia (not yet metastasized or invaded) invasive adenocarcinoma: exceeded the muscularis. Sessile polyp, ca. invasive, can not be adequately resected by polypectomy. colorectal carcinoma age, dietary habits, IBD. Almost all originate within adenomatous lesions. Proximal colon, polypoid masses, the Wall Londo. Discovered as large lesions, have unusual bleeding and obstruction. Distal Colon: annular lesions and circular ring-like lesion gauardanapo. Microscopically similar. Since well-differentiated anaplastic forms. Important desmoplastic stromal response. May secrete mucin. Anorectal Channel: squamous cell carcinoma. Symptoms: Colon right: vegetative> diarrhea, anemia, micro / hypo, iron deficiency. Colon left: Constrictive> abdominal pain, constipation, alternating rhythm, obstruction Straight: hematochezia, tenesmus, stools tape, obstruction.Metastases to regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs and bones.