Catholic religious order founded to combat the rise of religious revolution in Europe in 1540. Ignatius of loyola  asked Pope Paul III for permission to establish a religious order dedicated to restoring the universal Catholic Church, Europe was fortuitously divided. Jesuits go anywhere His Holiness [the Pope] will order, It was a promise that we would see Jesuit priests traveling around the world in the coming decades & centuries. They followed the Spanish to Central & South America, & to the Philippines & Pacific Ocean archipelagoes, the French to Canada & the Portuguese to their distant empires in the Americas, Africa & across Asia.

The Jesuits were prolific writers, & the journals & letters documenting their extensive travels provide vital information about the early modern world & the cross-cultural encounters they had in different places. this religious order play an essential role in shaping the time, century. There was no place the jesuits didn’t go & they stablished trade forks & build connections. They are also some of the only information we have from some places. is good and bad. Bad because they were European missionaries and their writings were through a distinctly Catholic European lens which often left the voice of the other unheard. The jesuits letter and travel show how hard and difficult it was to get from one place to another

Traveling from the Jesuit missions in Goa, India to Japan was every bit as complicated as getting from Lisbon to Goa.  Ships had to sail with the seasonal monsoon winds that begin blow from the northwest in the spring.  In a couple of months, if all went well, you would arrive in Malacca, Malaysia for a quick resupply.  Later, Xavier advised those who followed, under no circumstances, do not stop to trading in China, if you do, he warned, the 4-5 month trip could easily take a year and a half. 

communication was also hard and that’s because Xavier, for example, wrote several versions of the same letter back to his Superiors expecting that most would never make it. Ignatius of Loyola spent countless hours in his small study in Rome writing letters to his followers approving budgets, consoling and exhorting them.  Many of those letters, however, never made it to their intended destinations.

 Europeans traveled the world during the 1600s, they discovered new lands, full of unknown plants and animals, and new people of which they had no prior knowledge. These discoveries precipitated an intellectual revolution as scientists, philosophers and thinkers tried to comprehend the meaning of new worlds. Encounters with humans who looked different, with cultures and belief systems led many to reflect on the essence of human nature.

William Dampier was a british who was once a pirate. He investigated tides and ocean currents. collected plan and animal species. Dampier’s detailed description of the flora and fauna he observed while sailing around Australia and into the Pacific played an important role in prompting others to rethink the very nature of the natural world. Once capricious and idiosyncratic the natural world was now increasingly seen as rational and ordered. James Cook English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands worked with the british royal society and the crown to explore and claim lands. Cooks’ observations on the movements of Venus confirmed ideas on the solar system and the earth’s place in the cosmos that had been evolving for centuries. French admiral Bougainville and his south pacific voyages.  Bougainville’s encounters with the Pacific island people in Tahiti provoked questions about human nature and the meaning and purpose of our lives. This three were completely different travel and expeditions, but played an important role in the movement. Each strengthened beliefs in the value of science and the ability of humans to understand the natural world. 

In addition to actual global voyages, fictional journeys played a key role in shaping Enlightenment era ideas about social and political reform. Writers like Voltaire and Swift that created tales of journals to mystical land that in real life critized their government and homeland this tales were widley read and highly influential.  The Age of Enlightenment was a European intellectual and cultural phenomena but its impact was global. In America and the caribbean it was a call for freedom. New ideas when they discovered new civilizations came like what Dryden said men in a state of nature were happiest and those who were stuck in civilized society, with its artificial laws and proscriptive customs were the ones who suffered.

This era also changed the way men ruled the world. Fontenelle conversation book point was that Women were capable of being part of the new intellectual developments in Europe, and men should let them do so.Women remained relegated to inferior status and ideas on equality were often only applied to certain classes and races.

We have to remember that the The Enlightenment, a philosophical movement that dominated in Europe during the 18th century, was centered around the idea that reason is the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and advocated such ideals as liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state. There were two distinct lines of Enlightenment thought: the radical enlightenment, advocating democracy, individual liberty, freedom of expression, and eradication of religious authority. A second, more moderate variety sought accommodation between reform and the traditional systems of power and faith.