latin american independence:the causes of independence:enlightenment ideas.the american revolution, the french revolution and the spanish war of independence encouraged some of the colonists to fight for their own freedom.great britain gave financial assistance to the supporters of independence

the sequence of events:the independence movements began during the spanish war of independence, when the colonies refused to accept joseph i as king of spain. as in spain, the colonists created councils (juntas), which removed the colonial authorities and governed in the name of fernando vii.when fernando vii returned to the throne, he sent troops to america to end the revolts. however, this was only successful in new spain, and in other regions the independence movements continued.the military victories of jose de san martin and the chilean general o’higgins at chacabuco (1817) and maipu (1818) led to chile’s independence.simon bolivar defeated the spanish at carabobo (1821) and pichincha (1822). he established gran colombia, which was made up of present-day venezuela, colombia and ecuador.the military victory of general sucre at ayacucho (1824) led to the independence of peru and bolivia (which was named after simon bolivar).during the first half of the 19th century, all of spain’s american colonies gained their independence, except for cuba and puerto rico.

The consequences of Latin American independence were disastrous for Spain.Spain lost its hegemony over Latin America.reduced Spain’s international prestige and power.The Spanish economy suffered.The consequences for the new South American countries were different.The Creole bourgeoisie gained the political and economic power it had been fighting for.New countries were formed.Most of the new

 republics now came under the influence of Great Britain.The establishment of free trade damaged the economies

Romanticism was cultural and artistic movement which

developed in Europe during the first half of the 19 century.It affected muscic and literature,as well as painting,sculpture and architecture.Romanticism´s main characteristics were:Creative freedom for the artist,respect for the individual,the expression of feelings, the glorification of national history

the class-based society:new form of social organisation began to emerge. It replaced the old estates system. people’s status depended on their wealth and their job.The origins of the class-based society:The class-based society originated in the political and economic changes.The French Revolution abolished the privileges of the nobility and the clergy. It brought about the legal end of the estates system.The Industrial Revolution increased the importance and power of the wealthy bourgeoisie, a new social group was formed,the working class.The characteristics of the class-based society:main feature,determined by their wealth,society was more open: people’s class could change depending on the wealth.all citizens were equal before the law, at least in theory, in practice great economic inequalities between classes, unequal society.Society was divided into three groups: the upper class, the middle class and the working class.The upper class,wealthiest people:the wealthy bourgeoisie.the nobility.The middle class,medium level of wealth:civil servants, lawyers and doctors.small-scale merchants and who owned small agricultural holdings.The working class,extreme poverty:industrial workers, proletariat. They worked in factories.tenant farmers, agricultural labourers.The working-class movement,Industrial working conditions:industrial capitalism grew,the wealthy industrial bourgeoisie and the working class increased.wealthy bourgeoisie, industrialisation brought increased wealth and higher standards of living. the working class suffered terrible working and living conditions.Wages were too low to support a family, so women and children had to work as well. The working day was extremely long and exhausting: between 14 and 16 hours a day. Child labour was common.Accidents were commons,especially in the mines.workers had no rights,workers did not have the right to protest or strike

the origins of working class politics:protests against the factory ownersthe dominant principles of economic liberalism allowed factory owners to carry out their businesses.proletariat in Great Britain began to organise itself in opposition,factory owners and the government. The following developments were particularly important:In 1811 the Luddites emerged. Factory workers protested by destroying machines because they felt that they were being replaced by them.government reacted by passing a law which established the death penalty for who destroyed a machine.In the 1830s the first trade unions’ appear, were associations of workers in the same industry,for better working conditions.European governments made trade unions and strikes illegal.the Chartist movement emerged (1838-1848) in Great Britain. Chartists petitioned Parliament demanding political reforms, such as universal manhood suffrage and salaries for members of parliament (MPs),pass laws that would protect workers’ interests.the government and factory owners were forced to concede some of their demands.