sociologyT;he study of humans in a post-indusrial society

Qualitative;Describing something based on what you saw/experience

Quantitative;Describing something based on numbers or facts or statistics

Micro Level:Interactional study:Happens on a smaller scale (i.e. Face to face)

Macro Level:Structural study:Focuses on bigger aspects (i.e. Education)

Social Location/Reflexivity:How society/societal change can impact an individual/group (Race,religion,sex, time period) (i.e. Pre 9/11 vs. Post 9/11)

Sociological Imagionation:Being able to see ones self in the bigger picture of society’s history

Renaissance:The blending of people and cultures from East and West

Reformation:People questioning authority about rights, church, freedom

Age of Enlightenment:Breaking away from old methods and forming new ones (leads to revolutions- American/French)

Thesis: Humans are born evil (Christian views-Adam and Eve)

Antithesis:Humans are born good

Synthesis:Humans are both neither good nor bad. Family, society, and education play a factor in who we are

“Tabula Rasa”:John Locke’s term for “clean slate”

Industrial Revolutions:(Late 18th-19th Centuries), Leaving Rural areas to go to cities. Leaving for a more modern life

Auguste Comte:1798-1857, “Father of Sociology”,Looked for the Basic Elements of Society

Basic Elements of Society:Static- Unchanging (i.e. Family, marriage), Dynamic- Changing (i.e. Technology)

Progress of how humans explain our world: 1st-Theological (faith), 2nd-Metaphysical or, Philosophical (reason, logic)


Emile Durkheim:1858-1917,Social Solidarity/Social Integration,Anomie,Suicide,Religion

Social Solidarity:This brings stability, order and cohesiveness to a society

Social integration: This brings social solidarity through the socialization process

Anomie:, Opposite of Solidarity,Chaos,Instability

Egoistic Suicide:Low solidarity,Felt left out from society,Want attention/consolation

Altruistic Suicide:Perceived to be a Benefit (i.e. Suicide bombers, killing ones self for health insurance)

Anomic Suicide:Shows an person’s moral confusion and lack of social direction

Related to dramatic social and economic upheaval

Rates of Suicide of 4 Beliefs: 1st: Non-Church- no community,2nd: Protestants- Individualism w/in church,3rd: Catholics=4th: Jews- most sense of community

Religion/Church; Provides a place for social integration where people can have a place in society

Herbert Spencer; 1820-1903,Wrote 1st Sociology textbook,”Principles of Sociology”,Helped create Social Darwinism

Principles of Sociology:Family, Religion,Politics, Work], Social Stratification], Social Control, Social Darwinism,Struggle for existence,Survival of the fittest

Karl Marx: Father of Communism, Capitalism, Evoluionist

Capitalism:Conflict between 2 classes: Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat (Ruling class vs. Woking class)

Evolutionist:A person who thinks all societies would lead to communism (Ancient, Feudal, Capitalism, Communism)

Max Weber:Called Marx “too simplistic”, Created the 3 Factors (3 ps)

Verstehen;Means “To understand”Empathy- to put yourself in another’s shoes

3 Factors (3 ps): Property- (economic),Prestige- (social),Power- (political)

Origins of CapitalismL Protestant Reformation (Calvinism),Predestination

Predestination:Hard work gets you into heaven

Rationalization (Bureaucratization):The spreading of logical/rational systems

European sociology:More theoretical in terms of sociology

American Sociology:Born in Gilded Age (post-civil war/Industrial Age),Very pragmatic,Problem solving,Social reform

Jane Addams:Social Worker,Gave aid to immigrants in Chicago

Social Work:An individual who is hired to make assessments about the protection of it’s citizens

3 Types of Norms:Folkways,Mores,Laws

Folkways:Simple Customs (i.e. What/how/when to eat?)

Mores: Moral Conduct (especially sexual conduct)

Sanctions:What happens what you break one of he norms, Formal vs Informal

Formal Sanctions:Applies to violating morals and laws(i.e. Exposing ones self)

Informal Sanctions]:Applies to violating folkways(i.e. Eating spaghetti with fingers)

3 Perspectives Functionalism,Structural Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism

Functionalism:Durkheim (father of this)Functional=Positive, Dysfunctional=Negative

Structural Functionalism:Society Functions to promote pre-social structure

Symbolic Interactionism:The “Micro level” of face-to-face relationsThe presentation of self in everyday life

Sociobiology:Biology dictates all behavior.DNA provides us for who we are

Deconstructionism:Breaking down words are reconstructing their meaning (i.e. Firemen vs Fire fighter- Less gender specific)

Semiotics:How signs/symbols/words/images are perceived

Typology:Defining everything into categories (i.e. types of religion)