* Current Genocides – =
Myanmar (Birma, 24K): Rohingya people being slaughtered by Buddhists and resettled into camps. 
= Sudan (300K): mass rapes, slicing off breasts, Dinka against Nuer people, Arabs against non-Arabs
= Iraq and Syria (2014-2015): ISIS against Christians, Yazidis, Shiites, death toll not available because it’s ongoing.
= Rwanda (1994, 800K): Hutu against Tutsi, Tutsi’s targeted heavily.
= Bosnia (1995, 100K): Bosnian Serbs against Bosniaks (Muslim) and Bosnia Croats (Croatians), Serbian Christians eliminating other groups
* Eight Actors of the Reconciliation Process- Mark Hay – 1. Victims 
2. Wrongdoers 3. Bystanders 4. Victims and Wrongdoers 5. The Dead 
6. Future Generations 7. Neighbors 8. God
* Hospitality – make them feel comfortable, safe, secure, and welcomed
* Levels of Racism – 1. Antilocation- to speak against, classifying through stereotypes, oversimplification, using jokes as a way to degrade. 
2. Avoidance- condoning behavior, if we don’t speak out, we contribute to the problem, avoiding places and people, alienation, can be passed down. 
3. Discrimination- not having the same opportunities, people can’t live in the same areas, have the same jobs, can be legal policies or cultural norms, anything that prohibits people or keeps them away from the benefits of society. 4. Physical Attack- could be outright or we could physically attack culture or religious identity, giving the impression that something negative is going to happen through intimidation 5. Extermination- eliminate them from the face of the Earth, mass genocides (currently in Yemen, Sudan, Birma, etc)
* Phases in the Reconciliation Process- Daan Bronkhorst – 1. Genesis Phase: when we start to fight against an oppressive stage, violence and bloodshed, plant seeds of possible reconciliation. 2. Transformation Phase: “honeymoon” phase, euphoria of removing the oppressive force, creating a new government and legal system, unrealistic outcomes 3. Readjustment Phase: long; once you’ve overthrown, it takes a while to reestablish a community, dealing with the perpetrators, living with them
* Prejudice – preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience, can be based on age, social class, culture or religion
* Reconciliation – to walk together again
* Reconnection – to stop flight, to reconnect with what has happened, acknowledge it so we no longer live with the past.
* Stage Eight: Denial – can’t acknowledge what they’ve done, guilt, continuation of the intent to destroy a group, hoping to get away with the crime
* Stage Five: Polarization – extremists drive groups apart, public demonstrations, print and broadcast polarizing propaganda, laws to forbid interracial marriage and social interaction
prevention: protest laws, protect moderate leaders, demand the imprisonment of extremists
* Stage Four: Organization – Genocide is a group effort, there has to be a level of organization, the state organizes and finances groups, plans are made by the elites
* Prevention: treat genocide as an organized crime, deny visas, freeze assets, put in place embargoes
* Stage One: Classification – “us vs. them”, differentiating groups and saying they shouldn’t interact, distinguish by race, religion, nationality, and ethnicity 
* Prevention: to promote common identities and languages
* Stage Seven: Extermination – the legal mass killing, mostly by governments, don’t believe victims are human
* Prevention: embargoes for economic goods (oil, weapons, etc.) perpetrators should be indicted by an international court
* Stage Six: Preparation – identifying symbols, death lists, separation of families in concentration camps, starvation, weapons bought 
* Prevention: Genocide Alert, UN security council should warn, humanitarian relief should be prepared, military intervention should be organized
* Stage Three: Dehumanization – denies the humanity of another group, subhuman, overcomes the normalcy of humans thinking murder is wrong, purification is a civic duty, hate propaganda, superior vs. inferior 
* Prevention: stop using these words, visas, prosecute those who commit hate crimes, shut down hateful media
* Stage Two: Symbolization – separation through names (Jews, Germans, Hutu, and Tutsi); languages, types of dress (uniforms, blue and white scarf= Cambodian), colors and symbols (yellow triangle= political prisoner, pink triangle= homosexual)
* Prevention: get passports removed, stop the use of hateful words, protest imposition of markings on people.
* Stages of Genocide (Dr. Gregory Stanton, Dept. of State 1996) – 1. Classification 2. Symbolization 3. Dehumanization 4. Organization 5. Polarization 6. Preparation 7. Extermination 8. Denial
* The Church and Racism – Pontifical Council 1988: we’re not where we’re supposed to be in terms of equality, in spite of the civil rights movement and doctrines, we still have institutionalized racism in education and career fields, a social sin.
* The Church and Racism – Pope Paul II 1530: Antisemitism, passion plays, slave trade 
Reverum Navara, another document about racism