Quiz 1&2

To effectively and efficiently use computers, you need to know the parts of an information system, which include people, procedures, software, hardware, data and the Internet. Here between data and information, the total amount you are paid for the week should be information and the number of hours you worked in a week and your pay rate are data. There are two major kinds of software discussed in Chapter1: system software and application software. Midrange computers are computers with processing capabilities less powerful than a mainframe computer yet more powerful than a personal computer. They are normally referred to as servers One that is a holding area for data, instructions, and information is called memory. Another component that controls and manipulates data to produce information is called microprocessor. Users can use the Internet to connect and access more powerful computers, software, and storage of other computers on the Internet rather than relying solely on their computers. This is what is called cloud computing.

The Internet is the physical network while the Web is a multimedia interface to the available online resources.

The first part of every uniform resource locator (URL) presents the Protocol used to connect to the resource.

Apple’s Mail and Microsoft’s Outlook are examples of client-based e-mail systems while Google’s Gmail and Microsoft’s Hotmail are examples of web-based systems. They provide special programs called search engines that you can use to locate specific information on the web. They also provide other special programs called spiders continually look for new information and update the search services’ represents C2C, is one of the most widely used B2C. The basic components of cloud computing are clients, Internet, service providers. System type of software works with end users, application software, and computer hardware to handle the majority of technical details. Functions, formulas, charts, and what-if analysis are common features of database management systems (DBMS), F. Dialog boxes provide additional information and request user input. General-purpose applications include all of the following except: web authoring. These organize commonly used commands into a set of tabs Ribbons. In a Ribbon GUI, a gallery displays the alternative choices. In an image editor, photographs consist of thousands of dots or pixels that form images. Here pixels means picture elements. To touch up photographs to remove scratches and other imperfections of bitmap or raster images, we should use image editors. Illustration programs are specialized graphics programs for editing bitmap or raster images F. Every app that is written for a particular type of mobile device can also run on other types of devices such as desktops or laptops but not the other way around F. Most operating systems support the ability to switch between different applications. This is called Multitasking. The category of operating system used for handheld devices Embedded OS. Disk Cleanup is a utility program included with Windows 10 that eliminates unused files and applications. Embedded operating systems, also known as Real-time operating systems and RTOS, are entirely stored within a device. Network operating systems are typically located on one of the connected computers’ hard disks. This computer, which is called Network server coordinates all communication between the other computers. BitDefender, Kaspersky, and Norton are examples of utility suites. When you experience problems after installing a new program or changing system settings, the system restore utility can help by reversing the changes and bringing your computer to a previous point in time. Microsoft’s Cortana and Apple’s Siri are a good utilities example of Virtual assistants. Mobile operating systems, also known as mobile OS, are a special type of operating system for smartphones, tablets, and wearable computers. They are neither stand-alone operating systems nor embedded operating systems F. Multicore is a new type of processor that can provide two or more separate and independent CPUs. Slot is a system board component that provides a connection point for specialized cards or circuit boards. Port is a socket for external devices to connect to the system unit. Cache is a type of memory that improves processing by acting as a temporary high-speed holding area between the memory and the CPU. RAM is a type of memory that is volatile or loses its contents when power is turned off. A chip is also called a silicon chip, semiconductor, or integrated circuit. Computers with multicore processors knows how to divide tasks into parts and distribute parts across each core—this is an operation or technology called parallel processing. Unlike most other expansion buses that share a single bus line or path with several devices, the PCI Express bus provides a single dedicated path for each connected device. Which of the following offers a combination of the features of RAM and ROM, Flash Memory. Which of the following ports provide high-speed connections for external hard-disk drives, optical discs, and other large secondary storage devices, eSATA. The ALU tells the rest of the computer system how to carry out a program’s instructions F. The number of bits that can travel simultaneously down a bus is known as the word size F. This reading device is used in banks to read the numbers on the bottom of checks and deposit slips MICR. Printer speed is measured in the number of words printed per minute F. The two categories of laser printers discussed in this chapter are Personal & Shared. This type of flat-panel monitors use a thin layer of organic compound to produce light, OLED. Ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) is very useful to graphic artists, designers, and publishers because it can freeze video sequences to create high-quality still images, which can then be edited and stored for later use. Optical scanners recognize individual letters or images, F. E-ink produces images that reflect light like ordinary paper, making the display easy to read, T. RFID (radio-frequency identification) tags are tiny chips that can be embedded in consumer products, driver’s licenses, passports, etc. Information stored in the chips can be read using a magnetic card reader, F. Printers that are widely used with ATMs and gasoline pumps to print receipts are examples of cloud printers, F. Which of the following is introduced in the book and widely used by retail stores to automate the processes to check out customers, to change product prices, and to maintain inventory records, UPC. Amazon’s Echo, Apple’s HomePod, and Google’s Home are examples of devices on the market that exclusively offer access to virtual assistants with voice recognition. Multifunctional devices (MFD) typically combines the capabilities of a scanner, printer, fax, and copy machine. Ergonomics is defined as the study of human factors related to things people use. It is concerned with fitting the task to the user rather than forcing the user to contort to do the task. It is generally true that, the higher the dot pitch, the clearer the images produced, F. Multitouch screens can be touched with more than one finger, which allows for interactions such as rotating graphical objects on the screen with your hand or zooming in and out by pinching and stretching your fingers. Internal hard disk often stores the operating system, T. Storage that retains its data after the power is turned off is referred to as nonvolatile storage. One way to improve the storage capacity of a hard disk is to use file compression. Disk caching is the process improves system performance by acting as a temporary high-speed holding area between a secondary storage device and the CPU. Solid state storage like RAM because data can be updated. Facebook is an example of cloud storage, F. One reason that makes solid-state storage devices different from hard disks is solid-state storage devices normally have a higher capacity, T. According to Chapter 7, both RAID and optical discs are not a mass storage device, F. DVDs use tracks, sectors, and cylinders to store and organize files, F. In a SAN system, the user’s computer must provide the disk space for data, and the SAN provides the file system for storing data, F. Head crash occurs when a read-write head makes contact with the hard disk’s surface or with particles on its surface.Mass storage devices that support an enterprise storage system may include file servers, network attached storage, RAID systems, and organizational cloud storage. Chapter 7 introduced five categories of secondary storage. They are introduced in the order of hard disks, solid-state storage, optical storage, cloud storage, and mass storage. The four important characteristics of secondary storage introduced in Chapter 7 are media, Capacity, Storage devices, and Access speed. When a read-write head makes contact with the hard disk’s surface or with particles on its surface, a disaster called head crash occurs. The concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources is called connectivity. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable that delivers television signals as well as connects computers in a network. Bluetooth is a short-range radio communication standard that transmits data over short distances of up to approximately 33 feet. The speed with which a modem transmits data is called its transfer rate. Bus, ring, star, tree, and mesh are five types of network topologies. Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called a IP address. Typically using Wi-Fi technology, these wireless access points are available from public places such as coffee shops, libraries, bookstores, colleges, and universities, Hotspots. Network gateway is a device that allows one LAN to be linked to other LANs or to larger networks. Broadband is the bandwidth typically used for DSL, cable, and satellite connections to the Internet. Sometimes NIC is referred to as a LAN adapter, these expansion cards connect a computer to a network. Work with firewalls to protect an organization’s network, answer: intrusion detection system. A widely used Internet protocol that requires sending and receiving devices to be identified by an IP address, answer: TCP/IP. Type of network topology in which each device is connected to a common cable called a backbone, answer: BUS. Microwave communication is a wireless connection which is sometimes referred to as line-of-sight communication. Protocols is a set of communication rules for exchanging data between computers. In a computer network, a node that requests and uses resources available from other nodes is generally called a client. Tree network, also known as a hierarchical network, is often used to share corporate-wide data. Peer-to-peer network, nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. Extranet is a private network that employ Internet technologies to connect more than one organization. Small data files that are deposited on a user’s hard disk when they visit a website are called cookies. Programs used to secretly record and report an individual’s activities on the Internet are called spyware. WannaCry” is known to be one of various forms of cybercrimes. This type of malicious software is particularly called ransomware. DoS attempts to slow down or stop a computer system or network by flooding a computer or network with requests for information and data. These requests can come from a single computer issuing repeated requests. In Chapter 9, malware is categorized to three common types, including virusesworms and Trojan horses. Computer Fraud and AbuseAct is a law allowing prosecution of unauthorized access to computers and databases.Offenders can be sentenced up to 20 years in prison and fined up to $100,000. Digital Millennium CopyrightAct, it is illegal to copy or download copyright-protected music and videos from the Internet without appropriate authorization. The act also establishes that copies of commercial programs may not be legally resold or given away. Digital rights management is used to (1) control the number of devices that can access a given file and (2) limit the kinds of devices that can access a file. Corporations often use these technologies to prevent copyright violations. Dictionary attack uses software to try thousands of common words sequentially in an attempt to gain unauthorized access to a user’s account. Rogue Wi-Fi hotspot operates close to a legitimate free Wi-Fi hotspot and typically provide stronger signals that many users unsuspectingly connect to. Once a user is connected, it steals information such as username and password sent by the user to legitimate sites. Firewall acts as a security buffer between a corporation’s private network and all external networks, including the Internet. Freedom of Information  Act, you are entitled to look at your personal records held by government agencies. The law also allows you to gain access to those records about you that are held by credit bureaus. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act(FERPA) of 1974 is federal legislation in the United States that protects the privacy of students’ personally identifiable information (PII). It restricts disclosure of educational records. The act applies to all educational institutions that receive federal funds. Third-party cookies are used by advertising companies to keep track of your web activity as you move from one site to the next. Botnet or robot network is formed by a collection of many zombie computers distributed across the Internet, so they are hard to shut down even after they are detected. Unfortunately for individual computer owners, it also can be difficult to detect when a personal computer has been compromised. Two special information systems introduced by Chapter 10 to support data and knowledge workers are office automation systems and knowledge work systems. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems belong to information systems. Expert systems, also known as knowledgebased systems, are a type of artificial intelligence that uses a database to provide assistance to users. This database, known as a knowledge base, contains facts and rules to relate these facts distilled from a human expert. Chapter 10, Videoconferencing systems is a kind of office automation systems, while Oil Spill Advisor is a kind of expert systems and an accounting system is a kind of transaction processing systems. A report on the numbers and types of jobs held by women and minorities, which is not needed periodically, but may be required when requested by the U.S. government, is an example of demand report produced by MIS. Top managerial-level information flow is vertical, horizontal, and external. Among various management in a typical business organization, who is responsible for operational matters and monitoring day-to-day events, supervisors. Transaction processing systems help supervisors by generating databases that act as the foundation for other information systems. Which system presents information in a highly summarized form executive support system. Regional managers can compare their regular sales reports with that of the other regional managers by using periodic reports. Decision support system is a flexible tool for data analysis, since its reports do not have a fixed format. Tactical decision model helps middle-level managers control the work of the organization, such as financial planning and sales promotion planning. The management information system records day-to-day transactions, such as customer orders, bills, inventory levels, and production output, F. In case of an unanticipated union strike, the manager in charge of manufacturing might consult the management information system to determine how it will affect production schedules, F. Group decision support system (GDSSis also a decision support system. So, there are three basic decision models used in GDSS: operational, strategic, and financial, F. Common names for computer-based information systems are transaction processing, management information, decision support, and security support systems, F. New hardware and software are acquired, developed, and tested in the systems development stage of the systems life cycle. In addition to defining the problem and preparing a short report, another important aspect of the preliminary investigation phase is suggesting alternative systems. Systems analysis and design is a six-phase problem-solving procedure for examining and improving an information system. The six phases make up the systems life cycle. Chapter 12 defines system as a collection of activities and elements organized to accomplish a goal. Grid chart is a useful tool for system analysis. It shows the relationship between input and output documents. The six-phase problem-solving procedure introduced in Chapter 12 for examining and improving an information system consists of Preliminary investigation, Systems analysis, Systems design, Systems development, System implementation, and Systems maintenance. In organizations, this procedure is used by computer professionals known as systems analyst. Operational feasibility is evaluated to determine if the proposed system can actually be made to operate in the organization. Another name for Phase 5, systems implementation, is conversion. Direct conversion approach to systems implementation is considered the most risky. Periodic evaluation is part of the systems maintenance phase of the systems life cycle. The organization can switch to the old system if the new system fails in the parallel conversion approach. In the testing step of the systems development phase, processed information is evaluated to see whether the results are correct. In the systems design phase of the systems life cycle, the report should be prepared to present the costs versus the benefits and it usually concludes by recommending one of the alternatives. Chapter 12 introduces CASE tools for system analysis and design. CASE stands for Computer-Aided Software Engineering. In Phase 2 of the systems life cycle, the primary concern is gathering and analyzing the data and new requirements are determined. Programming languages are called lower level when they are closer to the language the computer itself uses. Programming languages are called higher level when they are closer to the language humans use. Before a computer can process or run any program, the program must be converted or translated into machine language. Assembly languages use abbreviations or mnemonics such as ADD that are automatically converted to the appropriate sequence of 1s and 0s. A programis a list of instructions for the computer to follow to accomplish the task of processing data into information. The instructions are made up of statements used in a programming language, such as C++, Java, or Visual Basic. One of the SDLC phase that focuses on formalizing the written description and processes used in the program is called program documentation. Program specification is also called program definition or program analysis. It requires that the programmer specify five items: (1) the program’s objectives, (2) the desired output, (3) the input data required, (4) the processing requirements, and (5) the documentation. The rectangle icon of standard flowcharting symbols represents a process item, while a diamond shaped icon is used to represent a decision item. A typical structured programs usually is implemented by using a combination of three logic structures called sequential, selection, and loop. The IF-THEN-ELSE structure is a logic structure for program design. It is also known as a selection structure. The expression below is a kind of repetition or loop structure. The programming language introduced in Chapter 13 that uses graphical user interface and special code for touchscreen interfaces to create apps for Apple iOS devices is called swift. Programming errors are of two types. If a payroll program that did not compute overtime hours would have one of the two types of errors, which is called a logic error. A popular development methodology called agile development, starts by getting core functionality of a program working, then expands on it until the customer is satisfied with the results. All six steps are repeated over and over as quickly as possible to create incrementally more functional versions of the application.