Module 2 curriculum b

CONCEPT AND PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM: Johnson defines the curriculum as follows: the curriculum is the sum of the experiences that students complete while working under the supervision of the school. Laura Shufelt curriculum means the set of experiences that students have in class. From these definitions of comments 2 parallel conceptions of what is the curriculum: a appears to be restricted to the field of materials and classroom activities. In this view, the core curriculum would consist of subjects of the curriculum … The definition of J ohnson offers a panoramic more open: the curriculum is the sum or totality of experience offered by the school. Consequently involves horizontally, both the purely academic and extracurricular activities and training of any kind. And vertically, it includes the entire process of schooling, from which the child enters school until he comes out. Nassif define the curriculum as a set of educational experiences planned by the school, depending on their goals and lived by the student under the responsibility of teachers. As a summary we can define the curriculum as a totality of educational experience (formative and instructive) that the school offers students systematically from entering until it comes out.
Designing these experiences, organize, enhance and update plan or program is the curriculum. There are some fundamentals of the curriculum, which come to be generally accepted sources of where they make goals and experiences and act: A. plasma zone because they are selected objectives and experiences that feeds the curriculum. B. filters at the same time, they indicate which are important. And what is that according Sperb s objectives which nourishes the curriculum? 1. The philosophical currents of the moment: theoretical concepts, values, ideas and ideologies can guide curriculum development. 2. Culture as an element that basically feeds the school activity in which it must transmit and improve the culture. 3. Society. 4. Socializing groups Sperber speaks of the family school, churches, industry and peer groups. Jonhson adds another: 1. Historical: collect various educational trends that exist in a given time. 2. Psychological is data that provides the knowledge of students and the learning process. 3. Professionals: consisting own research on curriculum, practice, procedures … Finally, the synthesis that makes Wheeler is very valid to have a basic outline of the foundation curriculum. 3 fonts can get most of the goals and experiences. 1. The Company 2. The student and his behavior 3. The subjects or subjects.
Models of curriculum there are several ways to organize the curriculum. According to Nassif: 1. Or branched tree, is one that is organized on isolated areas or subjects. College students are typical of this type. 2. by areas of education: the structure taking into account the interrelationship between subjects afines.3.por areas of life is guided by the purpose of bringing to school life .4. of experience or active: ES curriculum particularly concerned to accommodate the interests and needs of pupils problems … 5.Globalizado or integrated: it makes a interdisciplinarity. Try to give a unified vision of reality and man .///// is difficult to find pure types of curriculum. More often than any of them participate in several of the dimensions identified by Nassif.
CURRICULUM PLANNING LEVELS: curriculum planning done in 3 levels closely interrelated and interdependent … .1 …. STATEWIDE: the Ministry for formally establishing the general framework in which the curriculum must operate throughout the state. It is a skeleton that is later coated in multiple ways in planning at school level and class. Mainly concerns the type instructive experiences. In Spanish legislation establishing a curriculum for teaching areas. The instruction is understood as a process of interaction of subject and medium. The environment provides experiences from which they come from or learning. The subject, not only assimilated those experiences, but expresses them, It makes communication. The experiences the students basically get their contact with other human groups that have been or are in time and space (social area) or the actual physical or natural (natural area). Finally, individuals learn to express themselves using the 4 most universal language: the word, number, their gestures and shapes and colors. This instructional curriculum structure became more concrete with the renewed program called … .2 … LEVEL CENTER: This is to flesh out the schemes of state curriculum policy in light of the objectives, needs and characteristics of each school … 3 … Class Level: At this level the school curriculum is transformed into learning experiences for each student group. Programming requires the 2 previous levels, but these make no sense, in turn whether each teacher is put into effect the principles and characteristics in the classroom. Is no use having an efficient policy that a school curriculum or renew your curriculum if every teacher in your class, it takes those decisions into practice. This level is usually called “programming”.

PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE CURRICULUM PLANNING: … A … BACKGROUND: any institution or any teacher that is willing to develop their curriculum should take into account previously, some basic principles that facilitate success in this task. Richmond calls them “axioms” and adapted to our context, are: 1. The solution of any conflict between the ideological and academic teaching is a prerequisite for the planning … need prompt diagnosis of the starting point, ie the existing situation and context before undertaking planning … 3 . required to be done cooperatively. It is a personal task or isolated. .. 4.La planning must be accompanied by the material elements necessary … 5.Implica the emphasis gradually shifts from the teacher as instructor to the teacher as manager and organizer of teaching situations … selection targets takes precedence over the selection of content .. 7. major force for innovation and curriculum change comes from outside the school. Within it, are usually strong resistance to change … current situation requires a reduction of knowledge to fundamentasl … 9.La curriculum planning is a process in constant recession. / / / The development the curriculum is a highly collaborative work rather than isolated individuals. The best way according to schedule Shufelt group activities are governed by democratic principles and practices. The most common pattern is a group of teachers working together with others. They basically are the teachers, parents and pupils. Although it is desirable the presence of an expert in curriculum …. B … SIMULTANEOUS: already in the process these groups should have in mind some basic principles to make your work effective: ..1. One can work in groups or committees, provided that those functions are well defined: it is not necessary that all those involved in curriculum development always work in plenary sessions. The full delegate in small groups or commissions, studies, reports or specific tasks. In any case these committees should have well defined roles, self-insured in the assigned work and share responsibilities among members. .. 2. It should seek, through discussion, that the goals are unambiguous, ie having the same meaning for all members of the center … 3. The curriculum decisions taken should involve all group members. .. 4. for both the objectives and decisions are group is necessary to provide adequate channels of communication … 5 The director in charge of planning the school curriculum must be a leader. Alexander learned from these are the most important skills necessary for a leader to bring a curriculum planning group: a. being able to create a stimulating environment … b … Create an environment group in which everyone’s ideas will be considered without ridicule or reluctance … c. .. have demonstrated effective implementation of previous agreements Group, ie agreeing not only with words earlier decisions … d. .. know the difference between the group’s proposals which are significant in that they are not .. E. .. delegate responsibilities, even if you think others are wrong … f. .. ability to synthesize from time to time the progress the group is reaching … g. .. Suggest new alternatives have been exhausted when the grupo.EL PLANNING PROCESS: curriculum planning is a process that has 2 dimensions: one refers to what to do or to plan. It is the material dimension of the process. The other relates to how to do or how to plan. It is the formal dimension. Process planning the curriculum material is to perform a series of tasks that are closely related. Unless differences of emphasis, there is agreement among authors in pointing out what those tasks. As shown in the proposal of Wheeler in five stages: 1.Señalar purposes, goals and objectives (in every project, theory or technological model, the first thing to determine are the objectives to be achieved. Late goals and objectives are not synonymous terms. Are final varying degrees of proximity, whose interplay will be discussed in subsequent issues) .2. selection of learning experiences. (Writing objectives is to specify behaviors that are desirable or desired by students for students. Acquiring or modifying some behaviors requires exercise, activity) .3. Selection of content. (Conduct are not acquired in a vacuum but, especially in the Academically, driving some subjects, units or content). 4.organizacion and integration of learning experiences and content. (this is to distribute the above tasks depending on the context in which they will put into practice: what means are necessary or possible, when it was going to do, what type of group of students is the ideal + …).5.evaluación. The last phase is to measure and assess the degree of attainment of the objectives and effectiveness of experiences, content and organization, ie each and every one of the above tasks. Formal process might look like: 1. The objectives proposed by the students are channeled through their representatives who are the delegates of course. They may also be attended by representatives of all organized groups operating in the center. His contributions in these specific aspects can be valuable. 2 º. The parents represent the interests of the community in which the school is embedded. However, also could involve neighborhood associations, youth associations … the neighborhood. It is also difficult to channel their participation because knowing that is the curriculum and its phases is itself almost exclusively of professionals … 3rd. Teachers for their part are primarily responsible for carrying ña students practiced these objectives. It is therefore advisable to involve all. Nobody is interested in practicing something that has been proposed on their backs. The cloister is the most appropriate body for this task. 4 º. The developer team comprising representatives of the 3 previous groups must: achieve the goals when necessary and assemble, structure and grade into one list the objectives proposed by each group. / / The same group should now select the experience, resources, content and responsible for each objective. The question is on paper the second, third and fourth fases.los departments are responsible for instruction and academic curriculum. Teams may be run by several teachers, parents or students. The possibilities are limitless them manage the library, cafeteria, duplicator, … for each objective must specify the criteria that will be used in its assessment: number of approved participants … When necessary, they should have prepared the instruments for evaluate these criteria: scales, factual evidence, surveys must also be made … or person team to assess each objective. With their input will be an overall assessment by the developer’s own computer curriculum. From their conclusions re-start the process for the next year. The proposed model therefore requires a permanent restructuring of the curriculum.