1.Dorsal and ventral stream.

Dorsal stream: stream of processing ascends from the occipital cortex to the parietal cortex and is involved in spatial awareness and action. It is often referred to as the ‘where’ or ‘how’ pathway because of its functions. Ventral stream:  Also known as the ventral pathway, this stream of processing descends from the occipital cortex to the inferior temporal cortexand is involved in objects recognition. It is often referred to as the ‘what’ pathway owing to its primary function.Example: when seeing an object like a dog in the street, the central stream is the responsible to identify what it is that ‘thing’ and the dorsal stream is the responsible for knowing where it is regarding distances. Importance: it is relevant to the perception model action because

2.multisensory perception: when more than a single sense responds to the same event. Example: (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998).rubber hand illusion. Importance:An applied extension of the rubber hand illusion has been used for the treatment of phantom limb pain. The majority of amputees experience pain in their amputated limb. This pain can be very difficult to treat and the experience can be chronic and even lifelong. One method of treating the pain is to induce in the amputee the visual experience that the limb still exists. This can be achieved by using a mirror box (see Figure 1.23) whereby the amputee can view their missing limb as a reflection of their existing limb. Therapeutic manipulation of the existing limb during viewing sessions has shown to have dramatic improvements in reported pain (Chan et al., 2007). In this case the visual perception of the amputated limb as being the real limb appears to alter how the nervous system deals with the pain signals.

3.Automaticity:mode of information processing in which processing of incoming stimuli and selection of an appropriate response seem to occur in the absence of conscious awareness. s the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low level details required. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice. …Example: walking, Importance:

4.Filter models of attention:Theoretical models that propose we actively select only a limited amount of information to attend to, either at an early or a late stage in the sequence of information processing. Example:

Importance: Selective attention is simply the act of focusing on a particular object for a period of time while simultaneously ignoring irrelevant information that is also occurring. This occurs on a daily basis and can be seen in basically any of your interactions.

5.change blindness, main effects and interactions:

The inability to notice changes in a visual scene.

Example: Zola, 1979 cHaNgE bLiNdNeSs. /ChAnGe BlInDnEsS. However, none of the participants reported ever noticing that anything had changed, despite the overall shape of each word they were about to fixate completely changing as they made an eye movement towards the words

Importance: However, it is known that the representations in visual short-term memory are somewhat abstract, and in this case the meaning of the word (i.e. the saccade target) was consistent in all cases. It was pointed  out the importance to the attention in short memories to notice changes.

6.associative learning, instrumental and classical learning: classical learning example: dog


7.cultural transmission: ejemplo: poisonous fish

8.Cronbach’s alpha:

9.biopsychosocial model: A model that recognises the importance of biology, psychology and social factors in the determination of mental states and behaviour. It incorporates interactions between these component factors.

Example:moods. hose psychological factors that are external and contribute to our moods, such as relationship harmony, involve complex processing by the brain and then affect those parts of the brain underlying moods. Similarly, when an internal factor, such as an infection, influences mood, it is assumed to do so by its effects on the brain. Indeed, the importance of the role of both biology and psychology in mood can also be seen in terms of the interventions that are used to treat mood disorders, such as depression. While some interventions specifically target the mind (as in counselling or cognitive interventions), others target the brain (through the use of drugs). However, if either such technique works, it is assumed that both brain and mind are changed in parallel.fmri techniques neuroimagingtechnique that measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood oxygen levels. Identify parts of the brain associated with different moods.

10.Neurotransmitters: A chemical stored at the terminal of a neuron and which is released by the arrival of an action potential. It occupies receptors on a neighbouring cell. Example: serotonin


Correlation:it is a measure of the extent to which two variables are related.If an increase in one variable tends to be associated with an increase in the other then this is known as a positive correlation. An example would be height and weight. Taller people tend to be heavier.Importance: Correlation allows the researcher to investigate naturally occurring variables that maybe unethical or impractical to test experimentally. For example, it would be unethical to conduct an experiment on whether smoking causes lung cancer.

2. Correlation allows the researcher to clearly and easily see if there is a relationship between variables. This can then be displayed in a graphical form.

11.aphasia: A language impairment that occurs as a consequence of brain damage.Example: A form of language impairment that relates to substantial problems understanding speech, occurring as a result of some form of brain injury

Importance: mportant prediction on the basis of the impairments of both types of patients. here were two key regions: one implicated in speech output and one in speech input.

12.neural plasticity: The process of change in the brain that occurs throughout life (though to a lesser extent as we age). It occurs as a result of a complex interaction between genes and environment. For example, when we learn something new, the brain changes. If a part of the brain is damaged, reorganisation can occurs and compensate for the damage, such as after a stroke. This also exemplifies the brain’s capacity for change, its plasticity.

13.box and arrow models:

14. Diary methods:


16.transactional models of development: e evidence suggests that human infants are innately equipped to produce a range of behaviours that influence and control the behaviours of caregivers, their highly developed abilities for recognising familiar voices and smells (e.g. DeCasper and Fifer, 1980), and their ability to imitate or copy facial expressions (e.g. Meltzoff and Moore, 1977), among others. These innate infant abilities help influence and control the behaviour of caregivers. This is fundamental to satisfying physiological needs, but also needs for safety and security.

17.Sampling: ways in which coding schemes are usually applied to behavior. There are two types of sampling:


1.Event sampling: note every occurrence of each event that you decide to code. I.e.: ticking a box every time someone asks a question. (example: exclamations, questions…)

2.Time sampling: divide a clip into short intervals of uniform length and then code each interval according to pre-specfied categories or codes. i.e.: study.

Importance: save time and energy.

18.Kohlberg’s stages of moral development:

By studying the answers from children of different ages to these questions, Kohlberg hoped to discover how moral reasoning changed as people grew older. He found that these reasons tended to change as the children got older. Developing 6 stages of moral reasoning.

Example: • Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. The child/individual is good in order to avoid being punished. If a person is punished, they must have done wrong.

Importance: Kohlberg’s study was relevant to know how the children develop as they get older.

19.moral foundations theory,

20. naturalistic observations: Naturalistic observation (i.e. unstructured observation) involves studying the spontaneous behavior of participants in natural surroundings. The researcher simply records what they see in whatever way they can.

Example:the way of life of different tribes living on islands in the South Pacific

Relevance: are relevant to psyshcology because they have greater ecological validity and observation is often used to generate new ideas. Because it gives the researcher the opportunity to study the total situation it often suggests avenues of enquiry not thought of before.


22.sexual and gender dimorphism,: sexual dimorphism is the categorization of organisms into two sex types: male and female; the physical or behavioral differences associated with biological sex. Gender dimorphism is the assumption that gender comes in two kinds, masculine and feminine, that maps only sexual dimporphism.

23.sexual selection theory: suggests that all animals are instrinsically motivated to ensure the passing on of their genetic material. This approach, suggests that observed gendered differences in social interaction, thought processes, and emotial expression are there to maximize individual and species’ chances of ensuring that their genes transfer to the next generation.

24.gender stability: the child develops and understanding that gender identity is stable and remains the same over time.

Example: the kid’s experimental questions could be: will you be a mummy or daddy when you grow up?

25.longitudinal studies: s a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinaldata).example: They are effective in determining variable patterns over time, They can ensure clear focus and validity. 

26.Erikson’s psychosocial stages,

27. narrative analysis