propaganda definition-the technique of influencing human action by the manipulation of representations. these representations may take spoken, written, pictorial or musical form.

difference between persuasion and propaganda-if the message benefits speaker is propaganda, if the message benefits speaker and audience is persuasion.

gliterring generality-associating something with a virtue word, used to make us accept and approve the thing without examining the evidence. this use is so pervasive that we hardly notice it. ex: prudct names: common uses of virtue words like wonder bread, superior diary, and some cereals aew given name that will particulary appeal to children, like cheerios, cptn crunch and froot loops. politics: calling a proposed law a right to work might be an effective way to get the law passed, because who would oppose the right to work?

what’s consistency?-it is the notion that phenomena are ordered (or consistent) that allows predictability. the concept of consistency in human behavior is an extension of the general notion from the physical wordl to the area of human behavior.

the importance of rationalization-the attempt to explain irrational behavior in a rational way. Rationalization emphasizes that in our desire to appear rational or consistent to ourselves we often employ means that may seem irrational or inconsistent to others.

Heider’s balance theory: unbalanced states vs balanced states

Unbalanced states prudce tension and generate forces to restore balance, the concept of a balanced stae designates a situation in which the oerceuved units and the experienced sentiments co exist without stress. balance state: john wants to have a baby with mary and mary says yes, then john is happy and there is balance state.
unbalanced state: john wants to have a baby with mary but she does not wants to, then there is a unbalanced state.- – = + balance state like math

Osgood’s congruity theory-deals with the attitudes persons hold toward sources of information. ex: john watches Fox because they support building a wall. if Fox changes that idea, there is incogruity and john will change the channel or source.
when incongruity, change your channel.

festinger´s theory of cognitive dissonance-holds that two elements of knowledge are in dissonant relation if, considering these two alone, the obverse of one element would follow from the other. decision-making forced compliance selective exposure and selective attention

selective attention-attending to only the parts of a message that agree with our prevailing frame of reference

selective exposure-the avoidance of messages that we suspect will not agree with our concept of the world.

three components of attitude

1. affective
2. cognitive
3. behavioral components

Hovland and ‘learing theory’ approach of studying attitude change-reinforcement theory, the theory that attitudes are learned and that they are changed through the same processes that occure when learning takes place.

research method used by Hovland is called-experimental method’ which divides soldiers into two groups: experimental group vs control group.
the experiment group recieves ”treatment” 
control group receives no treatment

sleeper effect-over a period of time, there is a tendency for people to dissociate the source and opinion

most effective to change people’s attitude-minimal-fear appeal

loss frame vs gain frame-presents the threat in terms of gained opportunities or decreased negative consequence

what does evidence shows?-that loss frames are more persuasive than gain frames

inoculation theory-Exposure to some weakened form of the message disagrees with your belief that will strenghten your own beliefs

what does inoculation theory indicates?-that not supportuve materials, but refutational materials will increase people’s strenght resistant to change their opinion

 heuristic-systematic model:

– Systematic processing: careful, analytical examination of the message, very detailed and rational 
– Heuristic processing; using schema, frames of reference to difest message

 Elaboration likelihood model, there are two routes to attitude change:

more important and more used by psychologists
– Central route: active and rational thinking and interpretation of message it involves high elaboration. Patterns, overall impression rther than a detailed impression
– Peripheral route: digesting message based upon some peripheral cues. It involves low elaboration, no details involved. peripheral cues ex: credibility and liking