clause: grammatical unit composed of two phrases—subject and predicate

phrase: a grammatical unit composed of one or more words.

sentence: the largest unit to which the grammatical rules of a language apply; may be composed of one or more clauses.

word: a grammatical unit composed of one or more morphemes.

complex sentence: sentence containing one or more subordinate clauses.Because the soup was too cold, I warmed it in the microwave

compound sentence: sentence consisting of two or more coordinate clauses. Also called a coordinate sentence.The pirate captain lost her treasure map, but she still found the buried treasure

compound-complex sentence: sentence that includes both coordinate and subordinate clauses Laura forgot her friend’s birthday, so she sent her a card when she finally remembered.

form: an expression’s observable characteristics, including actual and potential inflections, actual derivational endings, stress, potential position in grammatical structures, and potential for grammatical operations.

function: the roles an expression plays in a sentence. Functions include Subject, Predicate, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Object of a Preposition, Complement, Adjunct, Modifier, Head.

meaning: definition of an expression or the information potentially communicated by an expression, studied in semantics and pragmatics.

Number (whether one or more than one entity is being referred to singular –plural.

Gender (whether the entity or entities being referred to are male, female, or neither): masculine (he), feminine (she), neuter (it)(relevant to pronouns, nouns.

Person (whether the speaker, addressee, or some other entity is being referred to): first (I), second (you), third (they)(relevant to pronouns and verbs)

Case (whether the pronoun or noun is the subject, object, or modifier in its clause): nominative (I), objective (me), genitive (my, mine)(relevant to pronouns, nouns, and noun phrases)

Tense (whether the past, the present, or the future is being referred to): present (kiss/es, drive/s), past (kissed, drove), future (will kiss; may drive) (relevant to verbs)

Aspect (the name given to linguistic forms that indicate characteristics of situations such as whether they are spread out over a period of time, i.e., progressive, or completed but still relevant, i.e., perfect)

Voice (whether the subject of a clause represents the entity responsible for the event, i.e., active, or affected by it, i.e., passive):

Mood (having to do with the kinds of clauses typically used to make statements, ask questions, or give orders/directions):indicative (The snows have melted.) interrogative (Have you ever been to Europe?) imperative (Take out the garbage!) (relevant to whole sentences).

Polarity (whether a clause is positive or negative):

count noun: a noun that represents entities that can be individuated and counted, and hence can be made plural, e.g., typewriter, diskette, page

non-count noun (also called mass): a noun thought of as representing things in the world as undifferentiated masses, whose parts are not identified as discrete individuals (rice, sugar, milk)

abstract noun: noun that denotes entities apprehended by the mind, e.g., truth, belief.

common noun: a noun that refers to classes rather than to specific individuals, e.g., tissue, box, xylophone.

proper noun: a noun that refers to individual entities rather than to classes of entities, e.g., Thomas Jefferson, Denver, the Kora

intensifier: words such as very and quite that modify adjectives and adverbs.

intransitive verb: a verb that does not accept a direct object.

linking verb: a verb that is followed by a subject complement.

main verb: head of a verb phrase or predicate.

modifier: optional expression that qualifies or restricts the denotation of another expression.

analytic test 1. A word may be a noun if it ends or can end in the plural inflection

analytic test 2. A word may be a noun if it actually ends in a nominal derivational suffix. -domfreedom-er/orteacher, actor

analytic test 3. A word may be a noun if it can occur alone after a word that typically precedes nouns and together they constitute a complete phrase. a.articles:a, an (indefinite) (e.g., a bulldog)the (definite) (e.g., the building) b.genitives: my, our, your, his, her, its, our, genitive noun phrases (e.g., my novel, our class, Sheila’s desk, the man’s car) c.demonstratives: this, that, these, those (e.g., that cup) d.quantifiers: some, any, all, no, every, numerals (e.g., every time, two pots)ordinals (first, second, etc.) (e.g., first place) e.most adjectives:good, subtle, etc. (e.g., good work

analytic test 4.A word may be a verb if it can take some or all of the four types of verb inflections: Vs, Ved, Ving, Ven,