los mios

1. the european economy in the 17th century 

The economyy stopped growing. Manufacturing and commercial were worse southern europe.


The Thirty Years´ War, a food crisis caused by stagnant agriculture, and the spread of the Black Pleage. 

Agriculture: constant wars caused a shortage in farm labour. There was a general decline in temperatures wich also hurt crops.

Population: europe´s population grew at a very slow pace. 

2. the Thirty Years´ War 

In 1618, a conflict broke out within tthe Holy Roman Empire in the state of Bohemia, involved almost all the great powers in Europe. 


Religious: a tension between Protestants and Catholics.

Territorial: the desire by some tates for independence from the Holy Roman Empire or the interest of other to increase their territories.

Political: the attempt of some countries like France, Denmark, and Sweden to counter the Habsburg rule in Europe. 

France, a Catholic country, enters the conflict on the Protestant side to weaken the Habsburg.

The Peace of the Westphalia, recognising the independence of the Netherlands and procaliming religious ffreedom in Europe.

-Spain and France continued to figth until the Peace of the Pyrenees is signedand France achieves dominance in Europe.

3. new political systems

Absolute monarchy: Louis XIV, the power has held by the king, who received his authority from God. He created a powerful bureaucracy, a body of diplomats and a permanent army. 

4. birth of modern science

Empiricism: claims that knowledge comes from experience.

Francis Bacon: experience feeds our knowledge observation. 

Rationalism: claims that reason is the main tool for generating knowledge.

René Descartes: use our reason to discover universal truths. He also established methodic doubt. 


René Descartes: he created analytic geometry, algebraic.

Blaise Pasacal: one of the first calculators, foundations for probability and statistics.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: he invented a calculator that could multiply, he invented calculus.

Astronomy and Physics:

-Galileo Galilei: he formulated a heliothentric theory, wich was condemned by the Church, he perfected the telescope.

-Joahnnes Kepler: he proved that the planets have a elliptical orbits. 

-Isaac Newton: he established the law of the universal gravitation, Newton also discovered calculus.

-Blaise Pascal: he clarified atmospheric presure witn heigtn.

-Evangalista Torricelli: he invented the barometer. 


-William Harvey: he described the circulatory system.

-Robert Hooke: he perfected themicroscope, discovered the cell.

-Anton Van Leeuwenhoek: he improved the microscope.

5. the meaning of tthe Baroque art

Baroque art has an important theatrical  component, combining architecture, painting and sculpture.

a. Architecture:

Monumentalism disproportion, complex composition more spectacular, dynamic, and surprising.

Curved, concaved, and convex shapes to create chiaroscuro effects.

Buildings were excessively ornate, urban planning. Large squares or plazas often decorated with fountains, landscaped avenues.

b. Painting:

Absence of sketching: painted directly on the canvas.

Use of chiaroscuro: to accentuate drama.

Search of movement: asymmetrical and diagonal compositions in wich figures were arranged sideways, creating foreshortening.

Varied themes: religious, mythology, portraits, or landscapes.

c. Sculpture: 

Decorative and sensionalist to surprise and move theviewer.


Expressiveness: scenes were full of felling and emotion.

Dynamism: figures seemed forced unbalanced, capture the essence of that fleeting moment.

Brigthness: effects of light and shadow, addrealism, complexity drama. 

6. Rome

Architecture: Bernini created the Piazza San Prieto and the Piazza Navona. Francesco Borromini.

Sculpture: these mainly has religious themes, although continued with mythological topics.

Painting: there are two movements. a classical movement represented by Carraci, and the naturalist movement  represented by Carbaggio.

7. Expansion

France: large places

Flanders: Flemish Baroque painter is Rubens.

Netherlands: Rembrandt, Vermeer (girl with a pearl aearring), Franz Hals (The nigth watch).

8. Spain

Architecture: The spread of Counter, religious buildings. Urban architectre, main squares (Madrid, Salamanca). 

Sculpture: alterpieces, made in polychrome wood.

Painting: Francisco de Zurbarán, monastio scenes. Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, religious scenes full of symbolism. José de Rivera, Spagnoletto. 

9. Velázquez

Three stages: 

Sevilla (1599): born in Sevilla, his early work was highly relistic, scenes from low life.

Madrid (1623): went to live in Madrid, King Felipe IV made him the court painter. Members of the royal family and courtiers like the Count-Duke of Olivares. Portraits of buffoons and drarfs.

Italy (first visit, 1629-1630): two visits to Italy, after his first visit, portraits, nudes, and landscapes, events such as The Surrender.