NATIONALISM: The ideology of Nationalism is based on the right of as nation to have its own political state the nation state. This nationalism was influenced by the romanticism, the liberal ideas and the new map of Europe after Napoleon’s empire. FACTORS:

Culture:Language, customs and traditions are very important in order to create a cultural identity.Example: Basque country, catalonia, germany…

Language:It has always proved to be a significant factor in movements of independence. This is called linguistic identity. People can have similar customs but if they speak different languages it will be difficult to create a nation.

Religion:Religious differences may be an strong factor for independence.

Geography:If a country has natural frontiers such as mountains or sea, people realise that they belong to the same country.

Imperialism:Imperial empires conquer territories which are very far away. At that time, 19th century, many countries were under the same monarch. However, they have cultural differences and they started to fight for freedom.

Native leaders:Monarch or emperors were foreigner in the country they controlled. People didn’t accept that situation and wanted their own native monarch.


Leaders:C=Zumalakarregi L=Isabella, Canovas del Castillo, Alfonso XII

Main ideas:C=Bourbon Salic Law, Religion, Traditionalist, Foruak, God country and king, Ancient regime, Basque customs, Absolutist. L=Freedom, one constitutional law, compulsory military service, lay state…

Supporters:C=Traditionalist, peasants, low clergy,countryside.L=Giristinoak, bourgeoisie,High nobles and clergy, cities, administration workers.


Berpizkundea:Basque people wanted to recover their language, culture, tradition, identity…

Socialist party:On the left of Bilbo bank were the working class lived.

Eaj-Pnv:In the 1894 the PNV was founded by sabina arana. He was a middle class carlist family.

Race: This was the idea that the basques constitued a separate historical people.

Ruralism:The countryside represents the essence of a nation, not its cities. The countryside does not change, and so represents the original state of a nation.

Religion:Liberals were anti-church becouse they wanted a lay state, and the nationelism were pro-clergy.Was most important ideas of  nationalism.

Original independence:The idea of become the B.C. independence was the foruak. The idea of the Arana that biscay had originally been nation, protected by the foruak.


Education:A compulsory state education system that promoted castilian as the official language.

Police:Extension of the powers of the guardia civil, founded in 1844.

Spanish nationalism:The idea of cultural, linguistic and religious unity promoted by writers such as marcelino menéndez pelayo.

Industrialitation:The phenomenon of industrialitation in Catalonia and in Basque country.

Basque bourgeois class:Consolidation of the liberal bourgeois class, and growth of their influence. But as they grew in power, they wanted to maintain their fiscal authonomy from Madrid. Thay wanted to maintain the foruak, but adapt them to their own interests.

Inmigration:The industrialised Basque Country and catalonia attracted migrant workers from all over Spain.This changed the composition of these societies from a homogenous to a more plural society.

Rural or urban society: It was changing the composition of the basque country from a rural society to an urban one, especially on the left bank of the Nervión in Biscay.


Where and when it happen?Middle of 18th century in England

What was the domestic system?Cloth was based in domestic system. Peasants worked at home and merchans gave them raw materials.

Active population from rural to urban economy:People move from the countrysides to work in factories.

What was the main sector?Primary and secondary sector.

The Steam-machine:The most important invention in industrial revolution becouse it was use in factories, mains, agriculture, ships…

Problems in coal extraction:Water went into the mains and a lot of miners died becouse of the floods, they drawn.So the steal machine was invented to pump out the water.

Need of iron ore:Most products were made with lot of iron. Demand of iron are was very big becouse that.


Where? 1=England 2=England, Japan and USA

Energy source:1=Steam- based on coal 2=Electricity and oil(petrol)

Machines: 1=Steam machine

Sectors: 1=Textiles, iron 2=Chemicals, steel

Finances:2=There was a new need for extra finance(capital) which resulted in the growth of banking and shareholding “High capitalism”.