SWELLING PRESSURE-test maximum pressure developed soil sample q unchanged when the humidified to prevent their hinchamiento.esayo FREE SWELLING-max. unaltered sample thickness variation in mold when edometrico moisturizes and allow expansion. The index values of 3ensayos used to determine the degree of potential expansiveness. LAND WITH OUTSTANDING HIGH-hillside or slope-the slope from which movement is triggered highly variable and depends on existing litogias, geology, water presence, charges on slope. outstanding risk is 15%. Although there are areas with 90% slope may be stable and 15% areas that may be unstable. “Originates landscape collapsed volume decrease of the ground. collapse phenomena asociadoss to ground-loam soil types of gypsum, silt-sandy soils especially metaestable.caso nature of fillings loose sandy or volcanic agglomerates cn. Open and loose structure. Q Behavior moisture content varies. This increased apparent vol-diminution. Soil-lime-gypsum low dry density values, low plasticity, high values collapse. To characterize soil-ennsayos danger of collapse-with-collapse edometro low-grade, low-medium, medium-high, high, very high optical. Karst terrain-materials which were generated in these processes: gypsum and saline, calcareous. In some volcanic formations is also relatively frequent presence of source and cavity with different problematic foundation although similar treatment. Cavities generated in karst processes has different and variable size. Based on these things, the karstification have + or-influenced structures. Anthropo-STUFFED are highly densified deposits and risk of collapse even pequeñas.solucion cn usual loads on piles supporting structure by transferring the burden to the substrate resistance. SOILS dispersible — whose constitution mineralogical and latest matches directly produces repulsive forces causes fine particles exceeds that for these attractive forces. Because of this flocculated soils, internal erosion occurring. Aggregates of particles consisting of clay particles. AGGRESSIVE-saline soils and more than 15% of ionic exchange capacity of saturated sodium ions in saturated solution pH of order <8.5.muchos of these soils aggressive d center to concrete foundations. PROP PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL S-ground consists of 3 components: part-solid fragments PETREOS-stop source to each series of hollow, liquid-integrated part of all elements that can be liquid in the gaps left by elements solidos.parte composed of water.,, part gas-elements that can be found in holes left by gas solids. composed of air, water, methane, ethane. POROSITY-relationship between the volume occupied by the pores and the total volume of the sample. Vary considerably from other sandy soils-values of around 30% n well graded sand, 50% uniform.,, Clay-to 89% or 96% in recent sedimentary arc terr. INDEX POROS-relationship between the volume occupied through the pores and the volume occupied by the parties cte, but variable porosity. > contents pore-holes will have “much more loose or soft, more deformabilidad.varia between 0.30-1.30.DENSITY-SPECIFIC GRAVITY-density (in g/cm3) is the mass per unit volume. Specific Gravity (pondios/cm3)-weight x unit vol. Both magnitudes come with the same number you gave. For specific gravities-letter gamma, for densities, point ro. Pt = Ps + Pw + Pg, as part gas is negligible: Pt = Ps + Pl volume: Vt = Vs + Vl + Vg, aunq tb can be expressed in this way, as part liqida q and q gas occupy voids left between the solid: Vt = Vs + Vh. The void volume may be empty or contain elements liqida or gaseous form. This volume is not fixed, may increase cn liqida part. Numbness-experiencing increased volume with increasing soil moisture from the same soil without cohesion saturación.en formed loose-vo x partic total management depends d q partic.vol present the ground depends on the degree of the same cmpactacion . With respect to the density of soil there are different types of density or specific gravity-dreal d partic soil, dry soil or Dap spec weight dry, natural moisture Dap cn,, cn Dap spec weight saturated soil or saturated, submerged weight spec. D. REAL OR SPECIFIC WEIGHT OF SOIL PARTIC-inmate ratio of the solid and d turn the volume occupied x this part solid. Gamma (s) = Ps / Vs. The value of the Dr does not depend on its total volume or the degree of soil compaction. Esp Weight is determined in the laboratory from a representative sample, once dried, disintegrated-particles are separated, is determined weight of sample (Ps) and measure their volume (Vs) x liqido displacement originates q sample in a container filled with water and weighed previamnt (pycnometer). Cmo Dr average value of land: 27 kg/dm3-lo established Terzaghi and Peck in 1955. AP D DRY OR DRY SOIL WEIGHT-ESP is the ratio of the weight of the total vol x divided solid or ap sample: gamma (d) = Ps / Vt. The total volume of soil without cohesion can be determined by obtaining the volume Vt of the area where you extracted the sample. The dry Dap normalment takes values between 13 and 19kg/dm3, aunq in volcanic soils and Aeolian deposits are puedn achieve 06-12kg/dm3 d values. D AP CN SATURATED SOIL SATURATED OR WEIGHT ESP-weight ratio is the total sample , waterlogged totalmnt divided x the total volume of the sample or ap: gamma (sat) = Pt / Vt = (Ps + Pl) / Vt. The Dap of soil takes values between 16-21kg/dm3, aunq soil in special cases can be found lower values. D AP HUMIDITY NATURA L-CN is the ratio of the total weight of the sample in its natural soil and moisture cn q cntiene divided x the total volume of the sample or ap: gamma = Pn / Vt = (Ps + Pl) / Vt. The Dap of soil takes values between 15-21 kg/dm3. WEIGHT SUBMERGED SOIL ESP: in sum ground, namely that it is under water table, D descends x effect of the upward force the water exerts on q the solid particles: gamma = (PSAT-Push) / Vt = (PSAT-Vt · gamma (w)) / Vt; gamma = gamma (sat)-gamma (w) = gamma (d) – (1-n) gamma ( w), gamma (sat) = (Ps + Pl) / Vt = gamma (d) · (Pl / Vt). MOISTURE-weight ratio of water contained in a given sample and the soil dry weight dl. Degree of saturation, is the percentage of pores are busy x q value varies between 0 and 100 and if the humidity expresses a sample d q soil is high or low relative humidity cn q max can have that land, ie, if the soil moisture cn q is, is closer to being dry or being saturated: W = Pl / Ps .. NOMENCLATURE – W = moisture, gamma (s)-weight solid esp,, PI = weight of water, Vl = volume water, Vs = volume solids,, Vh = vol holes, and gamma (w): DENIDE water , Ps = solid part weight. CONSISTENCY-dependent directamnt cohesion due to fuerzs of attraction between soil particles and q form the adhesion between them. Cohesion q FZA attraction maintains intimate union between a body Molec. It manifests between q part are in contact or very little cohesn a cntenido soil moisture depends dl thereof, adhesion-FZA q attraction holds together Molec of individual chemical species. The consistency d cncepto includes demonstrations soil d d cohesion and these forces are manifestations adhesión.las-cmportamiento to gravity, pressure, thrust, traction, trend d d soil mass to other soils, sensations of touch in the fingers touching the soil mass. The soil consistency dpende d d d its cntenido moisture. The modification of the consistency of a soil cnsecuencia d cmo moisture variation is continuous. However, there are varying degrees of cnsistencia distinct from each other, so q to analyze cnsistencia studio and a floor have been established cnsistencia very cnvencionalmnt 4grados d difenciados each other: solid-cndo presents strong characters d soil hardness, semi-solid – when soil is mainly characterized x friability,, plastic-xa cndo soil present ability to be molded and maintain the form q has been given, clearing cndo touched the earth we see a goo feeling great presnta q tndencia to adhere to various objects

LIMITS pts ATTERBEG-the transition from one state to another cnsistencia d were fixed x Attenberg and designating limits Att.hay cmo 3: retraction limit Lr: xa is the moisture that the soil cracks and loses its coherence x lack of moisture q must contain a soil is saturated cn cndo vol min d water is equal to the index holes d d sample soil sample is kneaded d cn d water an amount corresponding to the largest q lim cntinuacion of shrinkage and dries, the soil sample is retracted, while q if q is at or below the lim of shrinkage, does not retract. LIM LIQUID (WL)-the device is determined casagrande cn .. Procedure-dried sample (150-200g) q pase x el mu * m sieve heated at 60 ° C.añadir distilled water, spoon casagrande takes a portion, flattening and extending into the d turn the crank at the rate of two turns per second, count the shots needed xa q dl groove walls join the bottom x dl it at a distance d No. of blows this cmprendido among 15-35-portion is taken between 10 — 15g, and determining its repeat the test until 15-25 lead at the 2 determinations takes a graph q with # d abscissa and ordinate blows moisture in logarithmic scale. WP-plastic limit represents the l pto n which soil begins to lose its cohesion x H2O.s lack moisture d min. The form q cn cn n puedn soil cores d 3mm diameter d if 1 sample contains 1humedad = o> q la d its limit plast may be easily amass i cn .- mantndra as if 1 sample contains 1humedad <q la d its lim.plast., you can not amass the mantnga q d way forma.L procedimient cnsiste No knead 1porcion d 20g soil d d q pase xl 400um sieve cn i knead till H2O form 1bola d q q take the takes ½ d the sample is molded roll cn i be ace d palm hand on forming 1superf.lisa xra q to reach the cylinder 3mm d d diamtro not to be part dsquebrajado n pieces i will repeat again l q process is broken mast mast i do not let that romperse.n roll it without momnto sample is taken, weighed, dries i is determined determinacions i was done 2 ace MDIO value.Consistency indices d d soils – Ind.plasticidad: is obtained by calculating the difference between percentages d ls q Moisture corrsponden to lim.liq. and l represents lim.plast interval d .. d values that soil Moisture NLQ tate remains No plastic, be + as + wide range l sl plastic floor. presnta 1umedad ground when n <to them to decide to lim.plast. that soil sta n stado plast.cuando soil presents 1umedad> to them to decide the soil lim.liq.Clasif d ls: very clay, clay, little clay, clay-free d (clean sands IP = 0)-Index cnsistencia d ( CI) q dimensionless numerical value contributes 1 ns approx idea. D the char. q has n land n its stado ICSE natural.atendiendo your sig can do unranked.: compact, dry, hard / n the limit Plast. / very Plast. / semiplast. / semifluid. You can stablish degrees d ls sig consistency: hard / semi hard / firm / soft / mushy / semi-fluid / fluid. When soil Moisture has n q n its natural stado corrsponde your lim.plast., Its IC = 1 .. when the soil Moisture has n q n its natural stado corrspond your lim.liq. its CI = 0. GRANULOMETRIA-X l grain size d or q component soil particles can be classified hese n: thick: gravel> 2; sand: 2 to 0.076; fine: silt: 0.076 to 0.002; clay: <2 (n cm). Ls sand, gravel and silt are soils without cohesion (Incoherents) cn grans or part. D pseudosferica polyhedral or no sway over ls cn demás.Ls clay soils provide cohesion (coherents) cn laminar particles, n the q existn grands Diferncia d d dimnsiones.xra know the proportion each material has n q soil analysis is performed granulometrics, using the dry xra particles> 0.075 and sedimntacion, via unedo, xara sizes <. is often represented in a graph, in a shaft are made in other sizes and percentages and the line is called line out granulometric analysis Particle size d ls x sifted soil is performed, a sample was taken the same dl, q d is dried at least 60 º C till weight sieves used the series sn ls d ls d ASTM standard or sample was sieved UNE.La xl 20mm sieve , d the fraction q pasa x 2kg separate quartering and determined that its portion xl sieve sifts 2mmasta get 2 fracc. Retained stufa dries n i be sifting x ls DMAS tamices.a hese d values obtain from the accumulated weight retained i tamiz.el complemnto d each give 100 ns l% q pasa x tamiz.El said sieve No. 200 has a light d mesh 0.076 mm and d l d 0.080 mm for the UNE q ls is used to separate elements xra fines (silt and clay). d uniformity coefficient (Cu) – Cu l s the relationship between the sieve diameter passed XLQ material 60% dl sieve diameter dl l l 10% XLQ passes. Cu = D (60) / D (10). Cu expresses the granulometry if there are% d similar sizes d ls part. or sizes q ay d ls% id little other muxo%. when Cu is <5 l soil has a uniform granulometry Cu usually varies between 5 and 20 indicates little q has a particle size uniforme.son heterogeneous soils, like sand l Cu and silt soil d s> 20% similar are each d d ls s tamaños.cuanto more uniform soil particle size dn, alcar menors dnsidad d values, are porous and will erosionads + + easy / .cuanto more greater the coefficient d may cnseguir cn commpactacion that soil. continuity or curvature coefficient (CU) – Express if debidamnte stan ls represented different sizes or if there are jumps xl contrary granulometría.entre n 1 and 3 ns indicates q has a continuous grain size = good graduate. > 3 or <1ns q indicates that soil has a particle size graduado.CU dashed = bad = (D30) 2/D10.D60.Content are known as fine-to fine particles ls q n have size <0.08 mm.las part. d under that size are ls q are muds and clays. Equivalent sand (EA) – This is a test d d qs work useful to note the existence d xra granular material contain excess hazardous x d fine. Cmprobar xra Tambn serves the useful x xro s about simplicity. Introduce the sample consists of n d n arid soil or a measuring cylinder dimensions given d, q previamnte cn is a solution to filling mzcla cn bn l soil solution is added to a signal horn and let read in the specimen heights. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL-analysis methodology dl dl dl soil behavior includes l following process: Identification: Test d consistency (lim.d attterberg) and d grain size, q als chemical tests can be added. Determination real tate dl dl soil: are developed from data obtained n d ls xra trials determining d Umeda, permeability, weight spec., porosity, pH, Determination d dl soil response: l behavior is studia ground in front of ls dl aq induce changes n the tate ls accions exteriors. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMSBy its particle size: d in response to particle size. By the method of Casagrande: classification sta ls in soils are designated x 2 letters mayusculs, called prefix and suffix, q l respectivamnte indicate main group and the subdivision d q belongs to this group will suelo.Procedimiento l: 1 I will make a visual examn soil testing if l s: organic altamnte: fibrous texture, coloring and odor caract.considerable Moisture content d …; coarse: pass + dl 50 % n xl weight sieve 200; fine-grained: skips n% <or = 50% fine-grained tamiz200.Suelos xl: sl case d d very fine grained soil, hay q ls lim.d Atterberg determine the fraction q pasa cn xl coarse sieve 40.Suelos dgrano: in case there are q fixed ste nl sieve 4, xra determine if it is d gravel (G) or sand (A). NOMENCLATURE-G = Gravel, S = sand, W = graduation Good, P grad.pobre = M = silt, C = clay, L = low plasticity; I = mean plast., H = high plast. O = mat. Organica, Pt = soil organic altamnt