[0:38, 25/9/2019] Caty Calliera: Operation Management: The business function responsible for planning, coordinating, and controlling the resources needed to produce products and services for a company. Characteristic: -A management function -An organization’s core function -In every organization. OM Transforms inputs to outputs: (Inputs are resources such as People, Facilities and Processes, Material, Technology and Information – Outputs are finished goods and services). OM’s Transformation Role: -To add value: *Increase product value at each stage *Value added is the net increase between output product value and input material value -Provide an efficient transformation: *Efficiency means performing activities well and at the lowest possible cost. Services: Intangible product -Product cannot be inventoried -High customer contact -Short response time -Labor intensive. Manufacturers: -Physical product -Product is inventoried -Low customer contact -Longer response time -Capital intensive. SERVICE & MANUFACTURES BOTH: -use technology -have quality, productivity, & response issues -must forecast demand -can have capacity, layout, and location issues -have customers, suppliers, scheduling and staffing issues. Strategic Decisions: -Set the direction for the entire company; they are broad in scope and long-term in nature -Less frequent. Tactical Decisions: -Focus on specific day-to-day issues like resource needs, schedules, & quantities to produce -More frequent. Late 1700’s Industrial Revolution: Machine to Human.  Early 1900’s Scientific Management: Analysis and Measurement; assembly lines and mass production. 1930 to 1960’s Human Relations Movement: Humans Elements. 1940 to 1960’s Management science: Quantitative Techniques. 1960’s Computer Age: Quantitative Models and data processing Improvements. 1970’s Environmental Issues: Waste reduction, recycle, reuse. 1980’s Just In Time: High volume production with minimal inventories. 1980’s Total Quality Management: Eliminate causes of production defect. 1980’s Reengineering: Redesign processes for greater efficiency and cos reduction.1980’s Global Competition: Complete in the global market. 1990’s Flexibility: Customization on a mass scale. 1990’s Time-based competition: Speed of delivery. 1990’s Supply Chain Management: Reduce cost of entire system. 2000’s Electronic Commerce: Use the internet for business. 2000’s Outsourcing and flattering of the world: Technology enabling outsourcing jobs virtually anywhere. 2010’s Big data Analytics: Math and statistics applied large volumes of data to gain business insights. Scientific management: is an approach to management that focused on improving output by redesigning jobs and determining acceptable levels of worker output. Hawthorne studies are studies responsible for creating the human relations movement, which focused on giving more consideration to workers’ needs. Human relations movement is a philosophy based on the recognition that factors other than money can contribute to worker productivity. -Job enlargement is an approach in which workers are given a larger portion of the total task to do. -Job enrichment is an approach in which workers are given a greater role in planning. Management science is a field of study that focuses on the development of quantitative techniques to solve operations problems. Just-in-time (JIT) is an all-inclusive organizational philosophy designed to achieve high-volume production through elimination of waste and continuous improvement. Total quality management (TQM) is a philosophy that seeks to improve quality by eliminating causes of product defects and by making quality the responsibility of everyone in the organization. Reengineering is redesigning a company’s processes to make them more efficient. Flexibility is an organizational strategy in which the company attempts to offer a greater variety of product choices to its customers. Mass customization is the ability of a firm to highly customize its goods and services at high volumes. Time-based competition is an organizational strategy focusing on efforts to develop new products and deliver them to customers faster than competitors. Supply chain management (SCM) Management of the flow of materials from suppliers to customers in order to reduce overall cost and increase responsiveness to customers. Global marketplace is a trend in business focusing on customers, suppliers, and competitors from a global perspective. -OM decides: *Whether to tailor products to different customer needs *Where to locate facilities *How to manage suppliers *How to meet local government standards. -Regional trading agreements: *North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) *European Union (EU) *World Trade Organization (WTO). Sustainability is a trend in business to consciously reduce waste, recycle, and reuse products and parts. Business-to-business (B2B) is Electronic commerce between businesses. Business-to-customers (B2C) is Electronic commerce between businesses and their customers. Customer-to-customer (C2C) is Electronic commerce between customers. Outsourcing is obtaining goods or services from an outside provider. Big data analytics is applying mathematics and statistics to large volumes of structured and unstructured data to gain unprecedented business insights. OM has the most diverse organizational function: -Manages the transformation process   -OM has many faces and names such as: *V. P. Operations, Director of Supply Chains, Manufacturing Manager *Plant Manager, Quality Specialists, etc. -All business functions need information from OM in order to perform their tasksv