6.The functions of body language within communication:

-Definition: As difficult as it is to prise apart the functions of verbal and non-verbal communication, researchers have over the years been able to identify some basic functions of body language within the communication process.

-These functions generally fit within one of several general categories:

+ Regulating:Body language serves the function of pacing and regulating communication. For instance, in a group of people, there are a number of non-verbal cues that are used to indicate when one person is finished speaking and it is another person’s turn.

+ Substituting: Sometimes body language is used to replace verbal communication. For instance, if you are caught in a conversation with someone who just keeps talking and talking, it’s difficult to come out and tell that person you’re tired of the conversation. Instead, you might substitute body language such as glancing away, stepping away, etc.

+ Conflicting: Your body language may say something different from your verbal communication, and when that happens it’s said to be conflicting. For instance, if you tell your boss her presentation was terrific but you have trouble making eye contact when making that statement, your body language is saying something opposite from your words. Most people tend to believe body language over verbal communication when the two are in conflict.

+ Center: This type of body language emphasises, accentuates, softens, or otherwise enhances your verbal communication. You might point your finger to direct attention to the subject of your words, or you might reach out and touch the hand of a child whom you are correcting or disciplining.

+ Complementing: This category is similar to conflicting, but with a few slight differences. You might use body language in an effort to support or add credibility to your words, and if that body language is seen as genuine then the overall message is strengthened. If the body language is perceived as fake or misleading, however, then it moves into the category of conflicting.

+ Repeating:This kind of body language is used to repeat what you’re saying verbally. For instance, if you tell your child to open up the door, you might also point to the door as a way of repeating the verbal direction.

7.Body language myths:

-The Eyes of a Liar:Most people will say that someone cannot look another person in the eyes and lie, but that is a myth. In fact, research conducted by Paul Ekman, a pioneer in the study of facial expressions, proves the exact opposite. Ekman’s research found that pathological liars have no problem staring someone in the eyes and lying.And what about people who avoid eye contact? Are they being deceptive? Ekman pointed out that nervousness can make people dart their eyes and shyness can cause them to avoid eye contact completely, even when telling the truth. In some cultures, avoiding eye contact, especially in younger people, is encouraged.

-Eye Contact is Good: Going along with the myth that liars cannot look a person in the eye, many believe that more eye contact is better. However, directing a fixated stare at another usually makes the other person uncomfortable. Eye contact that lasts a few seconds is best for showing attention and conveying sincerity. Any eye contact longer than that may be perceived by the other person as flirtation or intimidation


1.the 8 macro-enviroments: Geographical, demographic, legal legal, enviromental, tecnhological, political, social, cultural. 

NEGATIVE BODY LANGUAGE: As we have briefly touched upon negative body language is any kind of movement of the body, head, eyes, any part of the visible anatomy that alludes to us as individuals being unhappy or displeased by something or someone.Negative body language often manifests itself in one of the following physical ways: -Shoulders drawn back, -Persistent eye contact (staring)-Arms crossed over the chesT -Sweating -Hands clenched to make fists-Swaying back and forth-Grinding teeth

All of the aforementioned physical displays can be attributed to negative body language and are often seen during a host of different scenarios. Indeed many of them you may be a regular user of yourself depending on the nature of (a) your mood and (b) the circumstances surrounding that mood.


1.Intro: If you are happy then your body will feel relaxed, your muscles will be loose and your eyes will convey a sense of contentment. This however is not the case if you are in a bad mood. We categorise a bad mood as being annoyed or upset or unhappy about something or indeed someone and although we can hide this mood by trying to be jolly and chatting with people in the usual way our bodies and their movements, stances and postures can unmask even the best performance.If you are in a less than happy mood it is likely you will: -pace around, stand up a lot of the time, tap your fingers or do any of the things we mentioned earlier on.

  -Kissing:Kissing in the western world is a complex thing. A person can kiss and be kissed affectionately, platonically or passionately. There is a world of difference in appropriateness between a peck and a smooch. Kissing between the opposite sexes is widespread both privately and publicly.In some more conservative cultures, kissing a member the opposite sex in public is a definite faux pas, especially in deeply religious societies. In China and Japan, kissing is not usual as a greeting. Whilst countries such as the USA, Australia and the UK have yet to see men kissing as a greeting, a welcoming platonic kiss on both cheeks with the same sex is a matter of course in many regions, especially around the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Middle East.

  -Pointing: In the western world, we often point at things to help explain a point. Although it is sometimes considered rude to point directly, a general point with the forefinger at an inanimate object is fine. However, in many Asian countries, such as China, pointing with the forefinger in public is considered quite rude. The alternative is to gesticulate towards the point of interest with an open palm that faces upwards.