TEMA 2 

1.In Roman Empire

     -Insignia: graphic representations of given business, first forms of metaphors.

     -Pine = Tavern. Squared.      Board = Game house.      Donkey = bakery. 

     -The first advertising techniques: 

          + Demonstrating: showing how a product is made. 

          + Exhibition: owner showing manufactured piece. 

2.Trade organizations , Guilds:Guilds were associations of artisans or merchants that gathered their business in the same area of cities . Streets were named consequently. Guilds controlled competence and guarantee quality. In 1211 , the first trade manual known.The competence wasn’t allowed among members of the same guild . The sops were concentrated in the same area , developed individual insignias that make them distinct.With time , those insignias got more sophisticated in Europe in 14th century.

    TEMA 3 

1.Exlibris , brands and labels: Small print or decorative label pasted into a book , often on the inside font cover , to inmate its owner. Abstract , simple and modern symbols that move beyond evocation of the professional activity. Artistic vocation linked to an individual professional activity , and not to a collective (guilds)In Germany (1575) the emperors opened the first office of registered trade marks. Bussines cards with printed emblems , ex libbers , and logos appeared by the end of 16th.

3.Newspaper in England

  –Woodfall brothers opened in 1767 , the Public Advertising with political onion. By the time , in England , more and more newspaper combining advertising with public affairs are open . Where areas , in the rest of Europe , due to royal authorities , guilds and religious institutions , there aren’t many newspaper yet.

  –The Times , the first modern newspaper , was published in 1785 . It clearly states advertising as an economical support of its informative activity ,and devotes its first page to the most expensive advertisements.

    TEMA 4

1.Brands , quarter oats: Created by Crowell , a great supportive of Advertising , Quaker Oats became on the most important advertisers by the end of the 19th century in USA. Crowell , discovered the character of Quakers in the Encyclopaedia , and liked Quakers values to its product serious , worker and virtuous.

Crowell believed that the comercial success of Quaker Oats needed daily advertising , cut dividend to spend more in advertising. 

Crowell was the first to distribute small sample for free , to share prizes inside boxes and to use scientific testimonials.  

2.Agents and agencies: 

  -William Tyaler: The pioner agents born in Britain , he open an office in London and acted as an ad sales representatives for printers , several of whom had launched newspapers to promote their trade. Tailer worked for editors , both rural and urban . He bought them advertising space and charged advertisers for these spaces. 

  –James White: White took the idea of Taylor and thought that it would be easier to sell space if an agent could also design and write ads for clients. He was operating a flourishing business in London considered to be the advent of copywriting. Taylor and White weren’t considered yet as advertisement agents , but as news agents. 

  –In France, Havas: he created a new form of agency . In his office , he received everyday international press. He translated the important news into French and sold them French newspapers. Havas created the first international news agency. The first brach office he opened in London is called Agency Reuters , still open currently.

  –In USA: , advertising agencies arrived from Europe and go consolidated very fast , the first agents were:

         + Volney Palmer: he opneded an office in Philadelphia and worked exclusively for editors in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

         + John Hooper: he opened an office in New York and also worked for editors in this state. 

         +  Rowell: in 1855 he opned his office in New York , his business was based in British and French model of new agent. After , he issued the first Rowell´s American Newspaper directory listing 5788 American papers , he was accused by other agents of revealing professional secrets. Orwell published a char of comparative costs so he facilitated the creation of media plan , agents now work for advertisers , not for newspapers. He published the first journal devoted to advertising “Printer´s Ink”.

3.Agencies only

  –Ayer & son agency: this one was founded in Pennsylvania in 1869 by Francis. He published their own directory of newspaper: Ayer&Son Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals. Controlled almost al newspapers and publications related to rural life and agriculture. 

They well know some of the slogans they created like “A diamond is forever” or “Be all u can be” 

  –Lord & Thomas agency: this one was founded in Chicago by Daniel Lord. It was a small agency. Beginning as a space broker for newspaper and magazines , L&T envolved slowly into an agent for advertisers. By the early 1900s , this agency was handling billings of approximately 900.000 dollars and was the 3º largest agency in the USA.

Alberta began to codify a series of advertising techniques that included coupons , sampling , copy testing , demonstrations and the “preemptive claim” , the idea that an ordinary tribute common to all similar products could be made to seem exclusive by being the first to claim it , then claiming it more often than anyone else.

Now this agency is called DRAFTFCB 

  –Thompson (JTW): bought a failed news agency for 500 dollars and he realized that he could earn more if the company provided the service of developing content for advertisers . He hired writers and artists to form the first known creative department in an advertising agency. . When he retired , the company was led by Resor and his wife Helen. Resor focused on administration and client services and on the preparation of ads. Helen was the first woman to successfully plan and write national advertising , rather than just rail efforts , she is als famous for introducing themes of sexual contact in magazines ads. JTW still exists and now is the 4th ages advertising company in the world.