1.Marx:2.Adorno & Horkheimer:

-Institute of Cultural Research at Frankfurt University -Reinterpret Marx.

-Critical Theory needed to build a true democracy.-The role of “Culture” and “Mass Culture”:

+ Cultural industry is capitalist because mass culture is imbued with capitalistic ideology of the upper class.+ Cultural commodities are sold , inferior to high art.

+ High art disturbs , contradicts , is a conflict/Low art is totalizing mastication , hide conflict.+ Systematic repetition numbs the mind and destroys the ability to think critically.3.Althussser:


-Prevailing cultural norms of society (“the way things are”) are imposed by the ruling class and accepted as the cultural norms by subordinate classes.

+”Struggle for meaning”.

-Hegemony: (totalizing discourse) justifies the status quo of the dominant ideology and its economic , political , cultural and social situation as inevitable/natural/normal.

-Through consent and not through coercive power only (agency)!

5.Hall 6.Foucault

7.Ideological hegemony: Ideological hegemony is the process by which certain way of understanding the world appear so self-evident and/or naturalized as to render alternatives as nonsense/unthinkable

8.Foucault:-Science and its “truths”.-Power circulates among us: ideology is enacted by it.-The power in words and “discourses”.-Biopower.

9.Stuart Hall:-Dominant Ideology is negotiated in the media.-Not reproduction , but construction of meanings in representation.-Encoding / Decoding


7.Brief history of the codes:

-First codes emerge in the US in the beginning of the 20th century.

+ First in Europe , 1918: Carte des devoirs professionnels des journalistes français.

+ 1920s and 1930´s: Scandinavian countries (Sweden 1923 , Finland 1924 and Norway 1936)

-After WWII , these documents multiply:

+ Some reach a supranational level like the International Federation of Journalists or the International Organization of Journalist (1954).

+ The declaration of Human Rights (with the recognition of information as a fundamental right in article 19) had a great role in this process.

-1980s/90s: a boom for codes (all members of EU finally had one):

+ 1983: UNESCO approves the International Principles of Professional Ethics of Journalism.

+ 1993: European Council passes the Resolution 1003 about Journalists Ethics:

*Importance of journalist ethics for European institutions.

*Puts the debate in the forefront.

*Ethical issues are not only for journalists , but also companies.

8.Codes in Spain:

-Spain , differently to other European countries , has a historical delay in its self-regulation.

+After the dictatorship , self-regulation was seen as yet another form of censorship.

-1992: Journalists Charter of Catalonia as the pioneer and encourages the emergence of new codes.

+ FAPE (Federation of Spanish Press Associations) did it in 1993.

+ Also in 1993: Convenio sobre principios de autorregulación de las cadenas de televisión en relación a los determinados contenidos de su programación referidos a la protección de la infancia y la juventud (Ministry of Science and Education).

+ It results in the Self-Regulatory Code for Television Contents and Infancy , which was supported by all national TV channels and radios.

9.Other issues:-Telebasura.-Press groups and other media have made their own deontological codes.-Codes on particular topics such as domestic violence , immigration , infancy or disability.-Proposition of a Law for professional journalists by the Forum of Journalist Organizations (2004):+ Still pending approval.+ Common ethical code.

+ Sanctioning institution.


2.Tasks of the council:-Advising the courts and the government regarding legislation and regulation of audiovisuals.-Issue reports for renewal or revoking licenses.

-Yearly report about audiovisual medial and the opinion of the public.

-Study topics that are alarming: education , infancy , new mentalities.

-Work with “Tribunal de Defensa de la Competencia” to avoid monopoly.

-Encourage the abiding by the rules , laws and codes regarding deontology , and denouncing those who don’t follow them to competent authority.

-Protect the rights of minorities , in programs and advertising.

-Mediate in issues of counter-programming , and promoting those produced by the local media.-Ask advertisers and audiovisual companies to stop or rectify illicit advertising.

-Encourage a plural and objective information.-Listen to the complaints of viewers and maintain a good relationships with civil society.

-1997: Consell Audiovisual de Catalunya (CAC)

+ 2000: Specific las for CAC , covering issues on advertising minors protection , personal rights , informative honesty and the public service of the council.

+ ”Oficina de Defensa de L´Áudiència”

+ Reports and recommendations.

-More recently , also in Navarra , Madrid , Galicia and Andalucía.