Item 4

“Which of the following is necessary coenzyme pk f.lluminos Acíclico make it rise?
– What happens to the light energy absorbed by antenna pigments?
Transfers to other pigments in the form of excitation energy.
– Which organisms are present chloroplasts?
Algae and plants
– Where appropriate electro electro that replaces lost chlorophyll P680?
– What gives the molecular electronic electronica that replaces the lost pearl chlorophyll P700
The plastocianina
– What attracts molecular CO 2in the Calvin cycle?
The ribulose-1 ,5-carboxylase-disfosfat
– What is the first stable compound that appears in the Calvin cycle of himself after making the fixation of CO 2?
The acid 3-fosfogliceric
– Which of the following phrases is not a quality quiimiosintesi?
Only perform certain types of bacteria.
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Item 4: The heterotrophic anabolism:
1) The heterotrophic anabolism

It’s the metabolic processes of formation of complex organic molecules from simple organic molecules. These are called precursor molecule. Is carried out both and cells Autotroph as heterotrophic.
The heterotrophic anabolism has two phases:
First phase or stage of the biosynthesis of precursors of monomers by half.
Second phase or stage of the biosynthesis of polymers by means of monomers
Simple organic molecules precursors can proceed:
– From the catabolism of the reserve substances in both cells as Autotroph rate.
– Rganics of digestion of food, even in heterotrophic cells.
– Of photosynthesis or Chemosynthesis only in Autotroph.
Not all enzymes can catalyze a reaction in both directions.
The heterotrophic anabolism is a reduction process. The energy required for all processes of anabolism is obtained from the heterotrophic desfosforilacio molecules of ATP.
Most roads in the cytosol anaboliques occur,
Nucleic acid synthesis, which occurs in the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria
Protein synthesis that occurs in ribosomes
– The synthesis of phospholipids and colestrol, which gives the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
– The glycosylation of lipids and proteins that begins in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus continues.
2) The heterotrophic carbohydrate anabolism
Has two phases:
Synthesis of glucose. Glucose can be obtained from pyruvic acid by the mtjaglicogenesi.
In Cellular Autotroph, can Pools in the month from a process that originates in the Calvin cycle.
Synthesis of Polymer Glucos or other Hexoses. The most important are glucose polymers by binding alpha. In plant cells is synthesized Mido, process called amilogenes ii glycogen is synthesized in animals ie the process is glicogenogenesi.

The Gliconeogenesi
Iver is the process to glycolysis.
Is the process of synthesis of glucose from precursors not glucidic. In animals is Necessary in situations of fasting.
The precursors of glucose formed by the gliconeogenesi can proceed desaminacio of amino acids, the transformation of the ACIS Lactic and fatty acid degradation.
Amino acids, when desaminen may give rise to pyruvic acid or oxalacetic acid.
– L ‘lactic fermentation by lactic acid originates in the muscles of animals when they do not have enough oxygen.
– In the cells of algae and plants and bacteria, glucose can come from fatty acids. This distinguishes the suspicion is that animal cells lack the enzymes that convert acetyl-CoA. There are three steps:
The conversion of pyruvic acid in acid fosfoenolpiruvic. The pyruvic acid enters the mitochondria, as is the enzyme-pyruvate carboxylase, can transformarlo in oxalacetic acid. Do not cross the inner membrane of mitochondria, malic acid is transformed into that if QE can pasarl cytosol, where it becomes oxalacetic acid and that eventually becomes fosfoenolpiruvic.
The conversion of fructose-1 ,6-diphosphate into fructose-6-phosphate.
The conversion of glucose-6-phosphate glucose.
The Glicogenogenesi and amilogenesi
The Glicogenogenesi is the simtesi glycogen from glucose-6-phosphate. Women are especially the liver and muscles, since muscle glycogen is a reserve for particular glucose muscle cell.
The Amilogenesi is the simtesi of miido. Is a process similar to glicogenogenesi, the only difference is that ATP is activating the molecule.
3) The heterotrophic anabolism of lipids. the nucleotide and aa
3.1) The heterotrophic anabolism of lipids.
The most important function of lipid reserves are the fat or triglycerides.
1) The award of fatty acids: the main source of fatty acids of animal fat is the food. The second source is the biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs in the cytosol from acetyl-CoA.
Biosynthesis of fatty acids begins with the release of acetyl-CoA from mitochondria to cytosol. The other acetyl-CoA that is required upon activation to become three carbons in a molecule called Malonyl-CoA. The new addition comes from a carbon dissolved bicarbonate io. The union of Malonyl-CoA (3C) to acetyl-CoA (2C) originauna molecule 4 carbons and a molecule of CO2. Fatty acid that is forming is usually palmitic acid can be used to synthesize stearic acid or oleic acid. Differences with the catabolism:
- It carries out the cytosol, instead of mitochondria
Fatty acid is joined SAG frup enzyme (fatty acid synthase complex), and anus to the CoA.
– The 2 carbon increases Cedano lap are provided by Malonyl-CoA and not acetyl-CoA.
– The carrier is the hydrogen and NADPH OR NADH FADH 2.
2) obtaining the Glycerine: Glycerine is to climb to join the fatty acid must be in the form of glycerol-3-phosphate.
3) training of Triglyceride: the fatty acid molecule, together with in ties. First it forms a monoacilglicerid, and finally after a diacilgrlicerid Triglyceride.
3.2. The amino acid anabolism heterotrophic
Not all creatures are able to synthesize 20aa. There 10aa that humans and many animals are unable to synthesize themselves, are the essential AA.