Intangible Asset Valuation, Income & Expenditure Accounts, Short Working & Goodwill Explained

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Q1. Approaches to the valuation of intangible assets?

Ans. During a business acquisition or restructuring, valuing intangible assets involves several methodologies, depending on the asset’s nature and the valuation’s purpose. Intangible assets, including patents, trademarks, copyrights, goodwill, and brand recognition, require specialized assessment techniques because they lack a physical presence for easy pricing.

Here are some common methods:

  1. The Income Approach: This method calculates value based on the expected economic benefits derived from the intangible asset over its useful life. This involves forecasting future income streams and discounting them to their present value. This approach is particularly suitable for assets like patents or copyrights, where future earnings can be reasonably predicted.
  2. The Market Approach: This method compares the intangible asset to similar assets recently sold. This approach is more challenging for intangible assets due to the difficulty in finding comparable market data. However, it can be useful for valuing trademarks or brands in industries with active licensing markets.
  3. The Cost Approach: This method estimates the cost of recreating or replacing the intangible asset. This can be applicable for assets like software or databases, where development costs can be quantified.

Each method has advantages and limitations, and often, a combination of approaches is used to arrive at a more comprehensive valuation during a business acquisition.

Q2. Features of income and expenditure account?

Ans. The Income and Expenditure Account is a financial statement primarily used by non-profit organizations, such as clubs, charities, and societies, to ascertain the surplus or deficit of their operations over a specific period, typically a year. It is similar in function to the profit and loss account used by commercial businesses but is tailored to the needs of non-profits, which do not seek to generate profit for shareholders.

Key features of an Income and Expenditure Account include:

  1. Non-profit orientation: It reflects the financial performance of an entity not engaged in profit-making activities. It records all income received and expenses incurred, irrespective of whether they are cash transactions, focusing on a true and fair view of financial activities.
  2. Accrual basis of accounting: Unlike a cash-based system, this account records revenues when earned and expenses when incurred, not necessarily when money is received or paid. This provides a more accurate financial picture of the organization.
  3. Clear categorization: The account categorizes income and expenses into distinct groups, aiding in better financial management and planning by understanding the sources of income and the nature of expenses.
  4. Exclusivity of operation-related transactions: Capital transactions are not included in this account. Instead, they are recorded in a separate statement called the Balance Sheet.
  5. Result indication: The bottom line of an Income and Expenditure Account shows the surplus or deficit, indicating whether the organization managed its activities efficiently within its financial constraints during the accounting period.

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Q3. Explain with example the term short working?

Ans. The term “short working” is commonly used in royalty agreements, particularly in industries like mining, oil extraction, or publishing. It refers to a situation where the royalties payable to the owner of a resource or property based on production or sales are less than the minimum guaranteed amount agreed upon in the contract.


Imagine a company leases a coal mine and agrees to pay the landowner a royalty of Rs. 5 per ton of coal mined. Additionally, the contract stipulates a minimum annual royalty payment of Rs. 50,000 as a guarantee. If, in a given year, the company only extracts 8,000 tons of coal, the royalties based on actual production would amount to Rs. 40,000 (Rs. 5 x 8,000 tons). This figure falls short of the minimum guarantee by Rs. 10,000. This deficit of Rs. 10,000 is termed “short working.”

In many agreements, these short workings can be recouped by the lessee in future years if subsequent years’ royalties exceed the minimum guaranteed amount. If, in the following year, the company pays royalties amounting to Rs. 60,000 based on production, it can offset this amount with the previous year’s short working of Rs. 10,000, effectively reducing the current year’s payable royalty to Rs. 50,000. This mechanism protects both the resource owner’s income and the operating company’s financial interests.

Q4. Explain in brief the term goodwill?

Ans. Goodwill is an intangible asset representing the excess value of a business above its net tangible and identifiable intangible assets. It arises when a company is purchased for a price higher than its identifiable tangible and intangible assets minus liabilities. This excess is essentially the premium a buyer pays for the business as a going concern, reflecting its established reputation, customer loyalty, brand identity, and other non-physical assets contributing to its earnings potential.


If Company A buys Company B for $1 million, and the fair value of Company B’s net tangible and identifiable intangible assets is $800,000, the goodwill recorded on Company A’s balance sheet would be $200,000. This $200,000 represents the value of Company B’s brand, customer relationships, and potentially its location or employee relations, which are not individually identified or valued during the acquisition.

Goodwill is not amortized but is tested annually for impairment. If the current fair value of the acquired business is less than its recorded value, an impairment loss must be recognized. Goodwill is crucial in understanding the real value of a business beyond its immediately quantifiable assets and liabilities.