8 ESSENTIAL QUALITIES THAT DEFIE GREAT LEADERSHIP: 1)Sincere enthusiasm: true enthusiasm for a business (its products and its mission cannot be faked 2)Integrity: all time: acknowledging mistakes, putting safety and quality first. They do what´s right, even if that isn´t the best thing for the current Project or even the bottom line. 3)Great Com Skills: Leaders must motivate, instruct and discipline the people they are in charge of. Remember that listening is an integral part of comm. 4)Loyalty: The best leaders understand that true loyalty is reciprocal. They see themselves as being in a position of service to their team members. 5)Decisiveness: Gd leaders make decisions and take risks knowing that if thing don´t work out, they´ll need to hold themselves accountable first and foremost. Bosses who aren´t decisive are often ineffective. 6)Managerial competence:Too many org try to crate leaders from people who are simply good at their jobs. Being good, doesn´t prove that someone possesses the other competencies they need. 7)Empowerment: A gd leader has faith in their ability to train and develop the employees under them. When emplo are empowered, théy´re more likely to make decisions that are in the best interest of the company and customer. 8)Charisma: people are more likely to follow the lead of those they like. The best leaders are well-spoken, approachable and friendly. They show sicere care for others. THE TRAP OF THE CHARISMATIC LEADER: Charisma only wins people´s attention, once you have their attention, u have to have something to tell them” -In order to validate assertions try using scientifically validated assessments instead of relying on intitution. -Narcisists tend to perform well in interviews and displays of confidence are often mistakes for competence. -Ecessive confidence and optimism can bind an org. -Measure for integrity. As a leader, all the Charisma in the world cnnot overcome the loss of credibility. -Overdependence on the CL also means that org may be inhibing the developent of competent successors. Don´t allow your enthusiasm for an CL to blind you. -Finally, try to separate your emotion from your overall assesment of any leader. SCARF MODEL: Threat: reduced working memory, narrower field of view, generalising of threat. Reward: greater cognitive resources, more insights, increased ideas for action, fewer perceptual errors, wider field of view. STATUS: our relative importance to others, brain part-reduction in status rom being left out to activate same regions as physical pain. threat– do you need an advice, annual performance view, reward-pay attention to work done and improvements/positive feedback and public acknowledgement/allow people to provide feedback on their own work. CERTAINTY: our being able to predict the future, without it brain must use more resources (energy pre-fontal cortex) BP: uncertainty generates “error” in orbial frontal cortexx, takes attention away from goal. T: change/lies/not knowing people and expectations. R: vision, stategies, map, plan, turning implicit into explicit: if unable to tell how, give date when u will be able to tell. AUTONOMY: our sense of control over events,BP: strong correlation btw sense of autonomy and health outcomes. T: inescapable stress can be highly destructive (teams reduce autonomy),  RELATEDNESS: our sense of safety with others, BP: thoughts from people like us use same circuitry as our own thoughts. T: meeting someone unknown, feeling let down. R: shaking hand swapping name, mentoring, coaching, share personal info. FAIRNESS: our perception of fair exchanges btw people, BP: insular (involves in intense emotions such as disgust). R: increase transparency and level of comm, establish clear expectations, groups creating their own rules. THE JOHARI WINDOW: Psychological tool created by Luft and Ingham in 1955. Simple and useful tool for understanding and training: self-awareness, personal development, group dynamics, interpersonal relationship, improving comm, team deveopment. SIX EMOTIONAL LEADERS STYLES:1)Visionary: -moves people towards a shared vision, telling them where to go but not how to get there (motivating them to struggle forwards).-they openly share info, hence giving knowledge power to others. -they can fail when trying to motivate more experienced eperts or mates -best style when a new direction is needed.-overall, it has a very strong impact o the climate. 2)Coaching leader: -connects wants to organiational goals holding long conversations that reach beyond the workplace, helping people find strenghts and weak and tying these to career aspirations and actions. -good at delegating chalenging assignments, demonstrating faith that demands justification and which leads to high levels of loyalty. -best used when individuals need to build long-term capabilities.-highly positive impact on the climate. 3)Affiliative: creates people connections and thus harmony wthin the org. -collaborative sryle which focuses on emotional needs over work needs. -done badly=avoids emotionally distressing situations, such as negative feedback. -done well=often used allongside visionary leader.- best used for healing rifts and getting through stressful situations. 4)Democratic: acts to value inputs and commitment via participation, listening to both the bad and thegood news. -done bad=looks like lots of listening but very little effective action.-best used to gain buy-in or when simple inputs are needed. 5) Pace-setting:-builds challenge and exciting goals for people, expecting excellence and often exemplifying it themselves.-They identify poor performers and demand more of the. If necessary, they will roll up their sleeves and rescue the situation- They tend to be low on guidance, expecting people to know what to do. -Best used for results from a motivated and competent team. -Negative effect on climate (often poorly done). 6)Commanding: soothes fears and gives clear directions by his or her powerfu stance, commanding and epecting full compliance. -They need emotional self-control for success andn can seem cold and distant. -Is best in times of crisis when you need unquestioned rapid action and with problem employees who do not respond to other methods.  .

STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT: Purpose of Forming Teams: -is to provide a framework that will increase the ability of employees to participate in planning, problem-solving and decision making to better serve customers. -increased participation promotes:  better understanding of decisions, more support for and participation in implementation plans, increased contribution to problem-solving and decision making, and more ownership of decisions, processes and changes. 1)FORMING a group of people comes together to accomplish a shared purpose. Their initial success will depend on their familiarity with each other´s work style, their exxperience on prior teams, and the clarity of their assigned mission. As a sponsor, your role is to help the team members get to know each other whether you offer team building activities or just a listening ear. Key to succes: act as a resource persone to the team, develop mutual trust, calm the work enviroment. 2)STORMING: disagreement about mission, visio, and ways to approach the problem or assignment are constant at this stage of development. – THis struggle is combined with the fact that team members are still getting to know each other, learning to work with each other, and growing familiar with the interaction and comm of the group members. As a sponsor, help the team members get to know each other whether you offer team building activities or just a listening ear. Help them leader clarify each of these assignments so that the team succeeds. -Key to S: purposefully picking the team, facilitate team to identify goals, ensure the team development of a shared mental model. 3)NORMING&PERFORMING: he team has consciously or unconsciously formed working relationships that are enabling profress on the team´s objectives. The members have consciously or unconsciously agreed to abide by certain group norms and they are becoming functional at wk together- -As a sponsor, ask for periodic ipdates from te team; regularly check the team´s progress at agreed upon intervals and critical steps on the path to a successful conclusion. -K: get feedback from staff, allow for the transfer of leadership, set aside time for planing and engaging the team. 4)TRANSFORMING: the team is performing so ell thath members believe it is the most successful team they have ever experienced.-As a sponsor, make sure team members are communicating with all of the other appropiate parties in your workplace. You don´t want the team operatinc in vacuum. -K:allow for flexibility in team roles, assist in the timing and selection of new member, create future leadership opportunities. 5)ENDING: the team has completed its mission or purpose and it is time for team members to pursue other goals or projects.-As a sponsor, make sure that the team schedules an ending ceremony. Whether they debrief the project and discuss how the team could have been more successful or they just order pizza, you will want to mark a clear ending to the team or project. HIGH PERFORMING TEAMS. 1)Participative leadership: comfort of team-members, 2)Effective decision-making applying appropiate techniques, 3)Open and clear comm using effective comm methods and channels, 4)Mutual trust in other team members and trusting in the team as an entity. 5)Managing conflict, dealing with conflict openly and transparently. 6)Clear goals with personal meaning for each team member. 7)Defined roles and responsibilities to unterstand what they have to do. 8)Coordinate realtionship and work 9)Positive atmosphere. THE BELBIN MODEL: teams should be selected to get a good mix of team roles. This has implications for skills specified at recruitment stages.-They often have a repertoire of skills they can apply as required, so can take on different team roles in different situations. 9 Belbins roles: 1)PLANT creates ideas 2)Resource Investigator explores opportunities and contacts. 3)Co-ordinator clarifies goals, promotes decision making. 4)SHAPER drives the team forward. 5)TEAMWORKERS: provides support and encourages cooperation. 6)MONITOR EVALUATOR discerning judgement 7)IMPLEMENTER turns ideas into action 8)COMPLETER attemtion to detail 9)SPECIALIST technical knowledge and skills. THE TOP 5 most actionable insights into team maagement:1)The set up (initial conditions matter most) 2)The personalities and values of organizational founders (Google recently conducted an elaborate multi-year study on team productivity (Project Aristotle) how teammates treated one another – one condition matters most for promoting psychological safety) 3)Cooperative goals – introducing cooperative tasks, rewards and goals to teams is critical to stablishing psychological safety and better productivity. They also promote more trust, better comm, more sharing of resources, and more liking of team members. Too much cooperation can actually be dysfunctional for teams. 4) So teams also need CONFLICT where differences of opinions, ideas, values, cultures, thining, exp clas with one another. It can provide the necessary to do things better. Feelings of positivity and negativity in our relationships “pool” over time. Teams need conflict to learn and grow and make good decisions (ratio of positivity-to-negativity). CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: is inevitable and that both positive and negative consequences may occur depending on how the conflict is managed. -Results are likely to be better with active engagement rather than avoidance. -The enviroment must be neutral and feel safe. -Behavioral, cognitive, and emotional skills can be acquired. -Emotional skills require self-awareness. THE 2 MIN MODEL: 1)Define issues and identify the parties 2) Set the stage for win-win outcomes 33) Understand your and their interests 4) Brainstorm creative options 5)Combine options into win-win soltions 6)Formalise the agreement. (Encourage positive relations and handle negative emotions). UNHEALTHY RESPONSES TO CONFLICT ARE CHARACTERIZED BY: an inability to recognize and respond to matters of great importance to other person; explosive, angri, hurtful, and resentful reactions; the withdrawal of love, resulting in rejection, isolation, shaming, and fear of abandonment; the expectation of bad outcomes; the fear and avoidance of onflict.

HEALTHY RESPONSES TO CONFLICT ARE CHARACTERIZED BY: the capacity to recognie and respond important matters, a readiness to forgive and forget, the ability to seek compromise and avoid punishing, a belief that resolution can support the interests and needs of both parties. KEY CONFLICT RESOLUTION SKILLS 1)Quickly relieve stress:-capacity to remain relaxed and focused in tense situations.-stay centered and in control of yourself, you may become emotionally overwhelmed in challenging situations.-each person responds differently to sensory input, so you need to find things that are shooting to you. 2)Recognize and manage our emotions: -emotional awareness is the key to understanding yourself and others. -many peope ignore or try to sedate strong emotions like anger, sadness, and fear. The ability to handle conflict depends on being conneced to these feelings. 3}Improve your nonverbal comm skills: -Nonverbal includes eye contact, facial expression, tone of voice, posture, tocuh, and gestures. -when you are in conflict, paying close attention to other persons nonverbal signals may help you figure out what the other person is really saying, respond in a way that builds trust, and get to the root of the problem. -Simply nonverbal signals such as a calm tone of voice, a reassuring touch, or a concerned facial expression can go a long way toward defusing a heated exchange. 4)Use humor and play to deal with challenges: -You can avoid confrontations and resolve arguments and disagreements by communicating in a playful or humorous way. Humor can help ou say things that might otherwise be difficult to express without creating a flap. -Whe humor and play are used to reduce tension and anger, regrame problems and put the situation into perspective, the conflict can actually become an opportunity for greater connection and intimacy. TIPS FOR MANAGING AND RESOLVING CONFLICT: 1)Make the relationship your pririty: mantaining and strenghtening the relationship rather than wining the argument. Be respectful. 2)Focus on the present: ability to see the reality of the current situation. Rather than looking to the past and assigning blame, focus on what you can do in the he and now to solve the problem. 3)Pick your battles: its important to consider whether the issue is really worthy of your time and energy. 4) Be willing to forgive: resolution lies in releasing the urge to punish, which can never compensate for our losses and only adds o our injury by further depleting and draining our lives. 5)Know when to let something go: if a conflict is going nowhere, you can choose to sidengage and move on. 6)Remain calm: try not to overreact to difficult situations. By remaining calm it will be more likely that others will consider your viewpoint.7) Express feelings in words, not actions: telling someone directly and honestly how you feel can be a very powerful form of comm. 8)Be specfic about what is bothering ou: vague commplaints are hard to work on. 9)Deal with  only one issue at a time: don´t introdue other topics until each is fully discussed.. 10)No “hitting below the belt”:attacking areas of personal sensivity creates an atmosphere of distrust, anger and vulnerability. 11)Avoid accusations: this will cause others to defend themselves. Insead, talk about how someone´s actions made you fel. 12)Don´t generalize: avoi never or always. Such generaliations are usually inaccurate and will heighten tensions. 13)Avoid #make believe”: eaggerating or inventing a complaint or your feelings about it will prevent the real issues from surfacing. 14)Don´t stockpile: storing up ots of grievances and hurt feelings over time is counterproductive. Try to deal with problems as they arise- 15) Avoid claming up:positive results can only be attained with twoway comm. 16)Listen to the reasons the other person gives for beign upset- Her point of view. 17) Repeat the other persons words, giving the person time to think before answering. 18)Ask if anything remains unspoken, gibing the person time to think before answering.

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT SKILLS: 1)Accomodating:The accomodating strategy is giving the opposing side what it wants.-Occurs when one of the parties wishes to keep the peace or perceives the issue as minor.- Employees who use accomodation as a primary conflickt management strategy, however, may keep track and develop resentment. 2)Avoiding: The avoidance strategy seeks to put off conflict indefinitely that means delaying or ignoring the conflict, the avoider hopes the problem resolves itself without a confrontation. -Those who actively avoid conflict frequently have low esteem or hold a position of lower power. -In some circumstances, avoiding can serve as a profitable conflict management strategy, such as after the simissal of a popular but unproductive employee. The hiring of a more productive replacement for the position soothes much of the conflict. 3)collaborating-works by integrating ideas set out by multiple people.-Object: find a creative solution acceptable to everyone.-Collaboration, though useful calls for a significant time commitment not appropriate to all conflicts. 4) compromising-Both sides of a conflict give up elements of their position in order to establish an acceptable, if not agreeable, solution.-This strategy prevails most often in conflict where the parties hold approximately equivalent power.5) competing-Competition operates as a zero-sum game, in which one side wins and the other loses.-Highly assertive personalities often fall back on competition as a conflict management strategy.

-This strategy works best in a limited number of conflicts (emergency situations)-Business owners benefit from holding the competitive strategy in reserve for crisis situations/decisions that generate ill-will (such as pay cuts/layoffs)

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT SKILLS1.Addressing problems quickly before they reach crisis stage 2. Asserting feelings without blaming. 2.Brainstorming solutions that accommodate both parties 3.Commitment to resolving problems 4.Convening a meeting of the parties involved in a conflict 5.Creativity in problem-solving 6.Forgiving transgressions 7.Formalizing an agreement between combatants 8.Identifying triggers to conflict 9.Listening without interruption 10.Mediating 11.Modelling reasonable dialogue 12.Negotiating 13.Recognizing the existence of a problem 14.Showing respect 15.Teaching behaviours to avoid conflict

DIVERSITYWhat’s? The practice of addressing/supporting multiple lifestyles and personal characteristics within a defined group. -Providing support for the acceptance of respect for various racial/cultural/geographic/economic/political backgrounds -Recognition/valorization of individual differences

Tips for managing diversity 1.Emphasize communication (employees understand policies, rules, procedures and information). 2.View employees as individuals (avoid stereotypes / judge successes and failures individually) 4.Encourage employees to work in diverse groups (diverse work teams let employees to get to know and value one another as individuals) 5.Base decisions on objective criteria (don’t set different criteria for different groups). 6.Be open-minded

Three paradigms of diversity 1The discrimination-and-fairness paradigm: Leaders focus on equal opportunity, fair treatment, recruitment and compliance with federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements 2.The access-and-legitimacy paradigm: Is predicated on the acceptance/celebration on differences 3.The learning-and-effectiveness paradigm: Incorporates aspects of the first two paradigms but goes beyond them by concretely connecting diversity to approaches to work.

KNOWLEDGE-SHARING IN TEAMS Motivating for KS: Develop trust, Develop leaders, Vary motivations, Show public recognition, Create communities, Hire people who will share Barriers for KS: Age/gender differences, Lack of social network, Differences in educational levels, IT illiteracy, Differences in experience levels, Use of strong hierarchy/position-based status/formal power, Poor verbal/written communication and interpersonal skills, Differences in national culture and values associated with it., General lack of time to share knowledge, Lack of leadership/managerial direction in terms of communicating the benefits and values of KS activities., Unrealistic expectations of employees towards technology, Power struggles in business units/functional areas.

MOBBING-Emotional abuse in the workplace.-Hostile/unethical communication being directed in a systematic way by one or a number of people mainly toward one individual.-Negative communication treatment which is directed against a person, occurring very often and in longer terms being identified relationship b/w perpetrator and victim. CAUSES THAT LARGELY AFFECT THE EXISTENCE OF MOBBING.:Volatility/job insecurity, Dissatisfaction/bad relationships in the work place, Excessive requirements, Conflict of interests and other, Unexpected creation of changes in business, Corporate culture fails in recognizing the forthcoming issue

TYPES OF MOBBING-Gossiping:  one individual provides information about other in order to destroy her/his reputation or to gain better position.-Mockery: target of ridicule may be the hairstyle/way of clothing/physical appearance.-Co-workers isolation: slander and ridicule, deliberate isolation of the employee..-Withholding important information.-Administrative and operational measures (by superiors).-Excessive workload: allocation of unnecessary or senseless tasks, giving specified tasks to employees with no capacity to do it properly.-Excessive criticism: the person starts doubting his capabilities and decreases his self confidence.-Sexual harassment (mainly women): gossiping/sexual proposals/violent enforcement of sexual intercourse.

WORKPLACE HARASSMENT (acoso):Becomes unlawful: Enduring the offensive conduct becomes a prerequisite to continued employment.-The conduct is severe and pervasive enough that a reasonable person would consider the workplace intimidating/hostile/abusive.-Obvious change in the employee’s status/salary.-May include: offensive jokes/physical assaults/intimidation/offensive pictures/insults.

During an interview, employers should not ask about race/gender/religion/marital status/disabilities/ country of origin/sexual preferences à discriminatory questions à they are not relevant to your skills and qualifications to do your job.