Industrial Process and Revolution: Types, Challenges, and Impact

Elements of the Industrial Process

  • Raw Materials: Transformed into finished products or intermediate goods
  • Energy Sources: Forces obtained from nature to transform raw materials
  • Labor: Activity carried out by workers and professionals in exchange for a salary
  • Capital: Necessary for industrial activity, some comes from profits
  • Technology: Equipment and materials needed for production
  • Organization of the Company: Essential for obtaining quality products at an affordable price

Types of Industries

  • The Intermediate Goods Industries: Make products used as raw materials for other industries, also known as heavy industry
  • The Consumer Goods Industries: Produce products directly for the market and consumers, also known as light industry

Types of Companies

  • Large Companies: Usually have different owners, form public limited companies, and have a management team that makes important decisions

The First Industrial Revolution

In the mid-18th century, European regions began to move from artisanal to industrial production, affecting worker’s lives and promoting capitalism as an economic system based on generating maximum profits.

The Second Industrial Revolution

Around 1870, industrial production diversified, and new inventions and machines helped increase the speed of industrialization, becoming the main economic activity.


An industrial production method that standardized and mass-produced goods, reducing costs and encouraging mass consumption of manufactured goods.

Technology for Industry

Information technology and robotics are essential for a company’s success, as is its capacity for innovation and rapid product distribution.


Production methods and factors of location have evolved, impacting industrial companies and regional imbalances.

Industrial Location and Regional Imbalances

Various regions have become preferred locations for industries due to factors such as energy sources and manual labor supply.

Challenge for Industry

Industrial productivity is lower than that of the EU, requiring more investment in R&D.

Spanish Multinational Companies in the 21st Century

Characteristics of multinational companies include size, geographical scope, organization, innovation, marketing, workforce, and trading model.

The Maquiladoras

Factories in northern Mexico where imported parts are assembled, particularly in the electronics and automotive industries.

Women in India

Women work in various industries, often under precarious working conditions.

Children at the Charcoal Ovens on Smokey Mountains

Families recruit cheap labor from children to work in charcoal ovens, leading to poor working conditions.