•1933-1935. Moderate policy.
1933. Retuses to pay reparations
1921 (Rep. Commissions). 269 billion Gold Marks
1924 (Dawes Plan). I 12 billion Gold Marks
1932 (Lausanne Con(.): 20 billion Gold Marks
1033. Germany elunes 1o resume t0 pay the te panasiones cahey had palid out 1/% of che wum of Versalles)
Consequences: no more debrs, money can be invested at home
1933. Leaves the Disarmament Conference and the League of Nation:
Vermany immediately demanded to be allowed military equality or it would le ave.
The French were equally insistent thar German military inferiority was their only insurance.
britain and the US did not offer the addirional securit commitments that France requested
insired equality in a sistem that rive security to all nations
1933 November. together with che elections a referendum was held, where che Germans voted ro leave the
Disarmament Conference and the Leaque of Nations
Consequence: a new point of the Trea was broken. Hitler fele free to rearm; Germany is not bound
1934. Signs a 1Oyear pact with Poland
(iermans: to normalize relations with Poland, to smooth border disputes, to stop the customs war going on and to preven
Polish “preventive war”
Poland-to prevent a posible allianas beresen Ciernan and che Soviet Union (Poland also made a militury alliance with
France”), also Poland aras afraid of France being too defensive (the Maginor line was started in 1929)
both countries pledged to resolve their problems by bilateral negotiations and to avoid armed contlict
Consequence: Germany recogised Poland’s borders. Hitler’s back was free, so he can turn to Austria and
1934. Attempts to unite Austria
1934 ulv: Austrian Nazis try o overthrow the goverme
The coup fails, but Austrian Prime Minister Dollfuss is killed in the attempt
Hitler at first supports the coup but steps back when it is clear it will fail
Italy reacts with great hostility to the prospect of Austria falling into a:i hands and rushes troops to the border
with Austria
Consequence: Hitler needs to wait for the Anschluss. Mussolini is acainst it. Nazi movement in Austria is backed
down but did not give UD
1935. Gets back the Saar-land (referendum).
In Versailles, the Saar was separated from Germany and administered by the League of Nations. France was given
control of the Saars coal
mines. After I5 vears, a referendum was scheduled to take place
The referendum on territorial status was held in 1935: over 9% opted for reunification with Germany
Consequence: Hitler has his first international “success”; Germany is much more an appealing place to live, two
vears atter the Enabling Act
935. Reintroduces conscriptions
began on a small, secret, and informal basis and always remained a largely covert operation, carried out using front
organizations such as glider clubs for training pilots and sporting clubs, and Nazi SA militia groups for teaching
infantry combat techniques
front companies like MEFO were set up to finance the rearmament by placing massive orders with Krupp, Siemens
and Rheinmetall for weapons forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles
Consequence: Hitler begins to rebuild the Wehrmacht (German army), the Allies do not react
1935. Siens a naval agreement with Britain
Germany: to mark the beginning of an Anglo German allance against France and che Soviet Union
UK: to be the beginning of a series of arms limitation apreements that vere made to limit Ciennan expansionisn
agreement between Germany and the .K. to regulate the size of the navies (the total tonnare of the
Kriegsmarine (German Navy) was to be 35%o of the total tonnage of the Royal Navy.
Consequence: The set ratio allowed Germany the right to build a Navy beyond the limits set by the Treaty of
Versalles, and the UK had made the
agreement without consulting France or Italy. Is Britain breaking the l reaty!1935-37: increased activity
1936. Remilitarization of the Rhineland
the Treaty of Versailles ordered it to be demilitarised by the Germans
the League did not do anvthing: the gains did not
worth the risk, there are elections and a financial crisis
Lonsequence: Stresa Front, France S renuaron a weakened Natl Cermany gains prestige, the act create.
precedent tor further Nas action
1936. Takes part in the Spanish Civil War (1936-39)
Nazi Germany sends ponerful air and atmonred unis o assist General Franco and his Nationalist lorces
Consequence: Franco and the Nationaliss win ghe War. but llitler does not get all what he wanted
What did Hitler wand? Did le get it?
Hiler believed chae a Facist Spain would alfy Cernany in a posible future wat. . Franco didn/’t enter WWl.
lliler believed shat lhe could rest his army, especially the Luftwaffe. He could. Ruchless assaults were
launched. The Luftwaffe could “practice’
Hitler believed that he could have a
ally, Italy, who also sudported Franco.
– Mussolini did support
Hitler later (a Berlin-Roma axis was “established
Hitler believed that a long civil war in Spain could “distract” he western powers, leaving him
“unattended”…. He was able to
expand: Austria and @zechos ovakin were tasen bv vermany
1936. The Anti-Comintern Pact
n agreement against the Communist International is concluded between Germany and Japan in November
Italy, Spain and other countries
Joined it unti November1 941
Consequences: the possibility of a joint German-apanese policy specifically aimed against the Soviet Union, alter
the accession of Italy, it
gained an increasingv antew
estern and
anti-British identity, after August l939, apan
distanced itselt from Germany as a result of the German-Soviet nona
• 1937-39: a confident foreig policy, certain that there would be little opposition to his plan:
1938. Anschluss. German troops march into Austria and a relerendum
seas the un
Background: the Treaty forbade the union: in the 1930s strong support from people of all backgrounds in both
countries lor a union; Nazi Germany had provided support for the Austrian National Socialist Party
Events speed up: Chancellor Schuschnigg proclaims a referendum
, Hitler threatens an invasion. Schuschnige
resigns, the German Wehrmacht entered Austria and was creeted with great enthusiasm
Consequence: a plebiscite officially ratified Austrias annexation to the Reich; no reaction Irom the Alles
1>38. Munich Agreement (incorporation of the Sudetenland in Germany)
Background:Czechoslovakia, created by the Treaties, Czechoslovakia has an alliance with the USSR and France; it
has a democratic form of government (“target” for Hitler); the Sudetenland: a C:echoslovakian, but forme
German territory with lots ol German population, which Hitler wants back
September 15, Berchtesgaden: Hitler: “Certain areas in the Sudetenland should be given to Germany…
Chamberlain: “British, French and Cxech govemments have to approve this decision.”
September 22, Bad Godesherg: Chamberlain:
“I got the approval needed.” / Hitler: “I demand immediate decision
and that the Cxechs withdraw from Sudetenland until 1st October.” Chamberlain goes home and prepares for
war. Hitler changes his mind.
September 29, Munich (Munich Agreement). Sudetenland is transferred to Germany; Plebiscite will be held
in areas where there is doubt over the dominant nationality; he remainder o! Czechoslovakia is
quaranteed independence and integrity
Consequences: Crechoslovakia was “abandoned” by the League of Nations, the policy of Appeasement (se below)
turns to be a dream, the Caechs had 36 divisions ready (and Soviet Russia would have been neutral in a war!)
The policy of APPEASEMENT
a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an apuressive Dower in order to avoid conflict
the term is often applied to the foreign policy of the UK in the 1930s, towards Nazi Germany and Fascist Itah
it is said to be a total failure, as WWil began in 1930
Why was it an error?
The Leae “abandoned” Crechoslovatin
Munich was tollowed by more Nazi demands. It boosted Hitler”s confidence
The Czechs had 36 divisions ready in 1938 to fight and help the Brits and the French fight
Sovier Russia would have been neutra lin a war1939. The invasion of Ciechoslovakia
“reveals Hitler”s true intentions
Hitler’s Germany invades Caechoslovakia
cannot be explained by “selfdetermination”
1939. The invasion of Poland
Background: Poland existed only due to the treaties around Paris and included rerritories that formerly had
belonged to Germany (Polish Corridor); East Prussia was separated from the country by this Corridor; Dan:is,
under international control, had a lot of German population and was dominated by Poland.
1939 August: the Nazi-Sovict Pact. Nonageression pact signed by Molotov and Ribbentrop. the act “comes from
the blue”, as Hitler hated the Communists
In this question the USSR should also be taken into account; but Stalin believes Poland does not worth a
risk of war with Nazi Germany, so stays neutral.
Germary: In case of invading Poland, «e would not be attacked by USSR, if we are to fight with France or Britain.
USSR: This pact gives us time to prepare for a more than posible war with Germany. Also, freed from fighting with the
Germans, we could centre our forces on the fight aga inst Japan.
Secret clause of this pact: in a posible Nasi attack on Poland, the Soviet Union will start simultaneously the
attack against Poland and the two invaders will divide Poland along a demarcation line.
September I*. Germany begins the invasion of Poland; WWIl begins