Absolutism was the political system in many kingdoms in 18th century Europe.Kings held all the three powers of the estate based on the divine right of kings. Nevertheless they needed the approval of the Parliament to pass on new taxes, although they were rarely called. Enlightenment: Intellectual movement in Europe and America 1Reason should be applied to everything, therefore they rejected absolutism. 2Natural rights, such as individual freedom. 3Knowledge was acquired through reason. 4Tolerance was the basis of coexistence. The Encyclopaedia was a famous work published by Denis Diderot and Jean D’Alembert that comprises human knowledge  in different areas. The three most well know Enlightenment thinkers are: 1Montesquieu: defended the separation of powers. 2Voltaire: believed in freedom of speech. 3Rousseau: defended freedom and popular sovereignty. Also believed that humans were good by nature, society corrupts them. Enlightened despotism Is a form of absolutism influenced by Enlightenment ideas. Some examples are: Carlos III of Spain,Catherine the Great of Russia,Frederick the Great of Prussia,Joseph II of Austria They introduced reforms in: Education: making it more available Government: modernising it and making it more efficient Land: they tried to make agriculture more productive, creating new agricultural properties. Nevertheless, they continued to be absolute kings and kept their authority.  Napoleon Chronology of Napoleon’s rule 1799 – First Consul 1802 – Consul for life 1804 – Emperor 1814 – Abdication, exile in Elba 1815 – Hundred days, defeat and exile in Saint Helena 1821 – Death Reforms under Napoleon  1End of the Revolution, start to spread it to other countries 2Napoleonic Code: legal code which included freedom of religion, divorce, etc. 3Concordat: Catholic church was allowed to resume worship, the state keep control over the Church. 4Return to the gregorian calendar. Napoleonic Empire Constant war with other European countries. France and Spain defeated in the naval battle of Trafalgar (1805). French victory against the Austrians in Austerlitz (1805), and the Prussians in Jena (1806). Napoleon controlled, directly or indirectly, most of Europe as a result. United Kingdom became the main enemy, so France tried to impose a commercial blockade to them. Portugal did not join the blockade,  so France invaded them, occupying Spain along the way, and thus starting the Spanish War of Independence. The tables turned in 1812, forced to retreat from Russia, and defeated in Spain and in the Battle of Leipzig in 1813. Napoleon abdicated in 1814, and sent to exiled in Elba. The Hundred Days Louis XVIII was proclaimed king in 1814, but Napoleon’s supporters conspired to bring him back to power and Louis XVIII had to flee from Paris. He ruled for the period known as the Hundred Days, and took an offensive stance on his enemies. He was defeated in Waterloo, Belgium, and the armies of the Coalition eventually captured him and sent him to exile in Saint Helena, where he died 1821 of stomach cancer. Congress of Vienna European powers met at the Congress of Vienna. Austrian Klemens von Metternich and Russian Tsar Alexander I were key figures. The main goal was to avoid new revolutions. -France returned to the borders it had before Napoleon. -A new map of Europe was drawn, with new states around France. -Territorial gains for Austria, Prussia and Russia. Liberal and national revolutions There were two main ideas that spread through Europe: 1Liberalism defended that the power of the king should be limited by a parliament and a constitution that guarantees individual freedom. 2Nationalism grew as a response to the Napoleonic invasion. In the 19th century there were multinational empires that ruled over different nationalities.Unification of ItalyItaly was divided into many different states, but all of them considered themselves Italians, because of language, history, traditions, etc. The most important of this states were the Papal States, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and Piedmont-Sardinia. The main protagonists of the Italian unification  Vittorio Emanuele II, king of Piedmont, was a parliamentary monarch. Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour was the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. Giuseppe Garibaldi was a revolutionary that wanted to establish a republic. The process of unification went through different stages 1859: with the help of the French, Lombardy was conquered form Austria. Nice was given to France as a compensation. 1860-61: Garibaldi and his volunteers conquered the Two Sicilies, but gave the control of the regions to Vittorio Emanuele II, who became King of Italy, 1866: Italy aligned with Prussia in their war against Austria, and received Venice as a payment. 1870. Napoleon III moved his troops out of Rome, and the Italians conquered it. Unification of Germany Nowadays Germany was divided into many different states. All of them considered themselves Germans. The two main powers, and larger states, were Prussia and Austria. A customs union (zollverein) was created among the German states, but Austria stayed out. During the revolutions of 1848 the crown of Germany was offered to the king of Prussia, but he refused to accept a constitution that limited his power.

The unification was achieved through military action during the reign of Wilhelm I and his prime minister, chancellor Otto von Bismarck, both conservatives. -In 1864, joint forces of Austria and Prussia annexed two Danish territories, Schleswig and Holstein. -1866 Austro-Prussian war was a victory for the Prussians that formed then the North German Confederation, leaving Austria out. -1870-1871 Franco-Prussian war: Prussians defeated France, conquering Alsace and Lorraine. All the German states but Austria joined and proclaimed the Second Reich and Wilhelm I crowned Kaiser.War of Spanish successionCarlos II died without children in 1700. Philippe, Duke of Anjou was chosen to be his successor, something not accepted by the Archduke Charles of Habsburg and some European countries.Philippe was supported by Castile and France, while the Crown of Aragon, United Kingdom, the Dutch Republic, the Holy Roman Empire, Portugal and Savoy, supported Archduke Charles.Those kingdoms were concerned about a possible union between France and Spain, but eventually, Philippe renounced his rights to the French crown.With the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Philippe was recognised as king of Spain as Felipe V.Austria received Spanish European territories such as Flanders, Naples and Milan.United Kingdom received Gibraltar, Menorca, and commercial rights with Spanish America.The war was finished next year when Barcelona was taken.Enlightenment despotism in SpainCarlos III, who was king of Naples before being crowned king of Spain, is considered to be an enlightened despot.He made some reformations like the royal factories, education, the Bank of San Carlos, etc. He was supported by ministers such as Campomanes, Floridablanca and Jovellanos.Carlos IV stopped the reforms of his father, and the ministers were replaced by Manuel Godoy, an alliance with Napoleon led to the French invasion and the Mutiny of Aranjuez (1808).Spanish War of IndependenceFrance and Spain were allies against the British. The Treaty of Fontainebleau allowed the French to cross through Spain to occupy Portugal, although they occupied also some Spanish cities.The general discontent led to the Mutiny of Aranjuez, and Carlos IV was forced to abdicate into his son Fernando VII.Both Carlos IV and Fernando VII sought the help of Napoleon, who convinced them to give him the Spanish crown, so Jose I, his brother, was crowned king of Spain.