Anthropocene: Viewed as the period during which human activity has been the dominant influence on climate and the environment. Sources, sinks, and sites: Sources what produces contamination. sinks forms in which its absorb. Sites where it happens. I=PAT: Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology. Captures the materialistic dimensions of environmental degradation but does not contemplate ideational factors. Ecological footprint: The impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources. Externalized costs/Internalization of costs: Externalized costs/Internalization of costs. Externalities, cost to society, Internalization: ways in which the culprit assumes an externality. Americum: Unit of energy. Any group of 350 million people with a per capita income above $15,000 and a growing penchant for consumerism. Progressively, there have been more americums. American capitalist stereotype. Tragedy of the Commons: Economic problem in which individuals neglect the well-being of society in the pursuit of personal gain. Demand for a resource overwhelms the supply, every individual who consumes an additional unit directly harms others. Solutions: rules, centralized authority, privatization, collectivism, education, hegemonic stability. Cancer of Westphalia: The notion of national sovereignty, derived from the Westphalian state system, creates a burden in cooperation and environmental governance, as States will prioritize their sovereignty over collective action. Soft/hard law: Different approaches to international law. Treaties are hard law, as they have enforceable mechanisms or “teeth”, guidelines and statements are soft law, as they do not have enforceable mechanisms. Paradox of Aggregation: Conflict between individual and collective interest. UNCHE:United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 1972. Stockholm declaration. Action plan to address issues concerning the environment and sustainable development. Creation of UNEP. UNEP: The United Nations Environment Programme is the leading global environmental authority. Sets the global environmental agenda, implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development and serves as an authoritative advocate for the global environment. UNCED: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992)/ Earth summit. Created the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21. Discussed oil, public transportation, fossil fuels and water. UNFCCC:United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992). Adopted after Rio Earth Summit. Stabilize greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Parties meet yearly. This initiated the process of Kyoto Protocol signed in 1997. COPs: Conference of parties is the governing body of an international convention. Global civil society: The third realm of governance. Made up up by everyday people, individuals, NGOs, business in a global scale. Culture of consumption: One of the biggest challenges for global environmental governance. Population and per capita consumption are increasing with time. The task requires systemic drivers including advertising, economic growth, technology, income inequality, corporations, population growth, and globalization that shape the quantities, costs, and distribution of consumer goods. Judeo-Christian influence on environmental politics: Argument by Lynn White, proposes that our relationship towards nature is built over a sense of entitled domination and control, which can be traced back to the Judeo-Christian tradition. Common Heritage of Humanity/World Heritage Sites: A form of collectivism. Makes designed. Sustainable Development: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable growth an impossibility theorem? Sustainable development makes more sense than sustainable growth. We don’t want to keep growing. Kuznets curve: Economic development leads to a deterioration in the environment, but after a certain level of economic growth, levels of environmental degradation reduced. n shape Ecological Capital: We should live off the interest/ regenerative capacity of the resources without touching the source of the interest. The Land Ethic: When we make decision we should make them with the land in mind. We tend to look at everything through economics. A thing is right when it preserves the land. Leopold’s notion of “the Land”: notion is a community. Humans are players. We are integrated into soils, minerals… He thinks humans. Fertility, mortality, migration: Frequency of people being born compared to people dying determines the planet’s population growth. Neo-Malthusian: Revival of Thomas Malthus reflections on population growth. Pessimistic view on environmental reality. Population increase will result in planetary-wide resource depletion. Fertility rates in the North and South: In the north, greater access to birth control, women are empowered and integrated into the labor force. They prioritize professional development over family building in short term. Contrary to this, on the south, women are still relied on as home makers. Corporate Environmentalism/Ecobusiness: The growing interest of business in adopting eco-friendly practices. Driven by profits and efficiency, not altruism. Greenwashing: Advertising products and services as environmentally friendly. Response to increasing pressures for ecologically friendly business practices. Systems maintaining, reforming, transforming: Different environmental approaches to the economy. Maintaining: address environmental issues through the existing agents in the economic system. Reforming: structural change within the system and its actors is necessary. Transforming: the existing economic system is to blame for environmental harm, and that alternatives which hold the reality of climate change as a paramount value must be sought. Ecofeminism: Feminist approach to understanding ecology. Ecofeminist thinkers draw on the concept of gender to theorize on the relationship between humans and the natural world. International environmental regimes: conferencies. UN framework convention in climate change.