BIOLOGY 11th Grade FINAL, 1st Semester Guide Miss Susi Cajal

I. Biology as a science. (e textbook pages 4-6)

a) Biology definition
The study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution.

b) Relationship of Biology and technology
The main relationship between biology and technology involves how biology is reliant on technology, in terms of using devices and the invention of new equipment that can be used in biological research. As technology develops, more advanced instruments can be developed. These instruments can be used by biologists, who will be able to observe and experiment using the equipment and make new discoveries. Therefore as technology advances, so does biology

d) Research where may a Biologist work.
Most biologists are employed by governmental agencies, universities, or private industry laboratories. Many biologists at universities are also professors, and spend most of their time teaching students research methods, assisting with the development of the students’ projects, as well as working on their own projects.

e) Which is the role of biotechnology in science and specifically in Biology?
Biotechnology is the broad area of biology involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use”

II. Characteristics of life.(e textbook pages 6-10, 525-531)

a) Explain each of the characteristics of life
Biology examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living things. It classifies and describes organisms, their functions, how species come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with the natural environment. Four unifying principles form the foundation of modern biology: cell theory, evolution, genetics and homeostasis. ecology, evolutionary biology, and botany. Biochemistry is the study of the chemicals that make up life. Cell biology is the study of life at the level of the cell. Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms. Immunology is the study of an organism’s resistance to disease. Genetics is the study of how organisms pass traits to their offspring. The study of how the human body works is called physiology. Zoology is the study of animals. The study of how organisms interact with their environment and each other is called ecology. Evolutionary biology is the study of how populations and species change over time. Botany is the study of plants. The four unifying principles are important foundations for each and every field of biology. Applied fields of biology such as medicine and genetic research involve many specialized areas of study.

b) What is a virus? Define its structure, make a drawing of an example of a virus.
Is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts. When infected by a virus, a host cell is forced to produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus at an extraordinary rate.

The basic structure of a virus is made up of a genetic information molecule and a protein layer that protects that information molecule. The arrangement of the protein layer and the genetic information comes in a variety of presentations. The core of the virus is made up of nucleic acids, which then make up the genetic information in the form of RNA or DNA. The protein layer that surrounds and protects the nucleic acids is called the capsid. When a single virus is in its complete form and has reached full infectivity outside of the cell, it is known as a virion. A virus structure can be one of the following: icosahedral, enveloped, complex or helical.

c) Explain if a virus is alive or not with a valid argument which explains the thesis of living things you are using.
Viruses are not living things. Viruses are complicated assemblies of molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, but on their own they can do nothing until they enter a living cell. Without cells, viruses would not be able to multiply.

d) Replicating cycles of viruses.(lytic or lysogenic)
The lytic cycle involves the reproduction of viruses using a host cell to manufacture more viruses; the viruses then burst out of the cell. The lysogenic cycle involves the incorporation of the viral genome into the host cell genome, infecting it from within.

III. Biomolecules.(e textbook pages 166-171, 329-332)

a) Relationship between macromolecule and biomolecule.
Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products.

b) What is a monomer or subunit?
monomer is a small molecular subunit that can be combined with similar subunits to form larger molecules. In living systems, like our own bodies, these larger molecules include carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins.

d) Proteins: name and functional groups in its monomers (LOCATE: amino
group, carboxylic group and hydrocarbon chain), peptide bond, functions,
examples and diseases related.
amino acid — for proteins. Proteins contain a wide range of functional groups. These functional groups include alcohols, thiols, thioethers, carboxylic acids, carboxamides, and a variety of basic groups. When combined in various sequences, this array of functional groups accounts for the broad spectrum of protein function.

e) Nucleic acids: name and functional groups in its monomers (LOCATE:
deoxyribose, ribose, phosphate, nitrogenous base), differences and
similarities between DNA & RNA, functions.
nucleotide — for nucleic acids. one phosphate group, one nitrogen containing base (pyrimidine or purine) and a sugar molecule, which in turn has alcohol and aldehyde/ketone group.

f) Lipids: name of the 4 types, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, polar and non-polar,
saturated, unsaturated, Trans fats importance, functions, examples and
diseases related.
carboxylic acid with long hydrocarbon chains (usually above 16 C long)

g) Carbohydrates: name of its monomer, functions, examples and diseases
alcohol and (aldehyde or ketone)
Monosaccharides are the monomers that make up carbohydrates. Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide. Glycerol and fatty acids are the monomers that make up lipids. Nucleotides are the monomers that make up nucleic acids. The four primary functions of carbohydrates in the body are to provide energy, store energy, build macromolecules, and spare protein and fat for other uses. Glucose energy is stored as glycogen, with the majority of it in the muscle and liver.

IV. The Cell (e textbook pages 182-199)

a) What is the definition of cell?
the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

b) Explain the three postulates of the Cell Theory.
The three tenets to the cell theory are as described below: All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization in organisms. Cells arise from pre-existing cells.