Group Formation and Development: A Six-Stage Model


Warchel and colleagues (1992) analyzed the temporal evaluation of many different groups and studies of other authors on the subject. They concluded that the formation and development group is fairly homogeneous and modify individual behavior, group processes and the relationships established with other grupos.Proponen that the process of group formation and development occurs through six stadiums that have no default duration and the transition from one to another is contingent on achieving the optimum level of consolidation of the starting stage.

Furlongs (Worchel et al, 1992): (1)

Period of discontent: Individuals form the new group they belong to a group where they experience a strong sense of helplessness. Their needs are not understood, the group quit rate is high, and participation in group activities almost nonexistent. Yet there is a strong opposition to the power structure of the group. This means that those in power still retain some leeway to ease discontent. It highlights sporadic acts of uncontrolled violence and vandalism.


Precipitating Event:

provides the signal for the formation of a new group and the abandonment of the old. For its clarity and its distinctiveness serves as a symbol of everything negative associated with the previous group and separates those who will remain loyal to those who advocate the breakup. This sometimes can lead to reprisals by the old structure of powers, it opens a reasonable expectation of a turnaround situation.


Example: When school ends, the group begins to disintegrate before we were in high school and we were always but now we’ve decided to do different things.


Identification with the group:

From this detachment with the former group began to identify, that is, at this stage marks the beginning of the newly formed group. At this time, establish strong barriers against other groups. To do this: it encourages conformity to group norms, is censored any disagreement within the group and expect public displays of loyalty to the group. At the same time stimulates competition with outgroups and restricted contact with their members … The membership of the group takes a big weight on the identity of the person.


Productivity group:

Once this stage, when we identify with ourselves, we began a phase in which we work as a group. Thus the group goals are the protagonists. Differences arise between group members according to their ability to perform tasks that will achieve these objectives. This approach also guide the selection of candidates to join the group. Despite these differences, the distribution of roles within the group follows rules of equality, everyone gets the same as the other regardless of the value of their contributions. It is at this moment when we began to socialize. Only allow partnerships with other groups if this serves to achieve the objectives.



, One begins to look for himself. Now gain prominence individual goals (most important), there are subgroups that we like. The distribution rules are fair, each receives according to his contribution. Begin to look for similarities and differences with the outgroup, the attitude towards these groups changes dramatically, now sought cooperative interaction with them and even exploring the possibility of joining them.


Decline group: doubts appear the value of the group is when you see the mistrust of many members of the group and when there are fights between subgroup. Keep in mind that this stage is not always true because when you are in the stage 5 or fall back to phase 4 or moves to the next stage, ie at stage 6. This depends on the characteristics of the group and its operation as such.


Communication in organizations pursuing especially three objectives: (_) Report on issues and matters of the organization, work and work results. (_) Training to achieve and maintain the competence of workers. (_) Encourage making it easier for employees as they feel valued and accept the objectives of the company. (_) Thus, to analyze the leader’s communication skills allow us to consider what elements of responsible behavior / control (group leader) affect performance and motivation trabajo.Somos group among all the animals we most need to learn from others. We have the longer process. Communication is the process by which we socialize, learn, not only behavior patterns but also the culture. We are the most social of all. Also, we can say we are more clumsy because when we are born we know not to do anything but have a great ability, intelligence, allows us to exchange información.La this communication could be defined as a set of physical and psychological, by which is made operation relating to one or more persons (transmitter) with one or more persons (receiver)
To achieve certain aspectos.La communication is a process by which certain ends are achieved through the transmission of signals carrying a message.


Ex: in this class when we make a slight lifting of his head to say hello, or UEP!

Processes of communication:



Thinking. Find words, constructing sentences, pronounce sounds.


Hearing Is it nice? Is it known?. When I want to communicate a thought, thinking I have it clear but I have to find the right words I mean, building sentences, think the tone in which I’ll say.


Ex: When you say I have it on the tip of the tongue, I know but I get the word, we sinónimos.Otra issue is the language is to download emotions.

Scheme of the communication as systemic school:

This scheme is made ​​by the University of Palo Alto, California). (Communication).


can not not communicate:

In this school, they realized that the scheme, sender-message-receiver not only serves to analyze the processes occurring, also allows us to learn professional level is the only way to analyze communications. It is also used when discussing education. That is, the communication goes beyond what is strictly the language.


Ex: Tutoring. Before turning directly to a person, it already has a first printing our and our work or service. We will not have a second chance to make a good first impression.


All information is a carrier of information and causes of behavior.

(Communication skills) When we refer to known issues, the most important thing is not what you think of the issuer, but have value to the recipient, you understand.


Ex: we must start with what students know. Keep in mind that no person is able to capture and receive a message as we had in mind the issuer.


Ex: If my mother tells me to buy bread and I did not bring the one she sent me because I have misunderstood and buy a normal loaf, instead of integral (as she wanted), then it means that what I understood (receiver) does not match what I thought my mother (the issuer). Each person hears and sees, selectively. If the message matches the value system of the recipient, or their personal feelings, this is ampliado.Otra important issue is that the value for any person, is not everything we know, but what we have heard and understood him. “plus the listener learns that the speaker”. This means that it is very important to listen, not only have to pay attention to what you say, but we must look at how you say it, which is the facial expression, hand gestures, etc. There is a saying that says: “Nature is wise, has given us two ears and one mouth, listen twice and speak in half.” (Communication) (3)
Human beings communicate both digital and analogue.

Each Communication involves an aspect of content, ie what is said on a rational level, and aspect ratio, ie, as they say on an emotional level. The emotional level is more important than the rational, since the former conditions the sec. Nonverbal communication, which is prior to the oral, lies the emotional perception of communication and, above all, reliability and intuición.Cuando nonverbal communication speak we refer to the part of the communication that has to do with body movements, voluntary or unconscious, that accompany verbal communication. Also included is a way of saying things, that is, the tone of voice, volume, frequency of issue, gestures, distance, etc. Aspects like our style of walking, talking, dressing, waving, etc., are a cluster of behavior patterns that things are communicating, sending messages. One thing that often happens is that the communication of these messages (nonverbal) is more reliable than oral communication because they communicate intentions, purposes and qualify or contradict what is being said, in most cases unconsciously .


Elements of nonverbal communication

Interpersonal space .- The physical space and its elements .- The look .- The voice and silence .- The gesticulación.La nonverbal communication is inevitable in the presence of others . Whether we like it or not, whether we do it purposely or not, whether consciously or unconsciously, our presence and our gestures communicate something to others. Nothing is better for a leader who convey a positive attitude toward all those with whom we have contact, since emotions are contagious.