1)Define personality:

An individual’s consistent patterns of feeling, thinking, and behaving.

2)Describe the processes that take place in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind:

Unconscious mind:

·Memories outside awareness/not accessible

Preconscious mind:

·Thoughts just beneath surface

·Voluntary access

Conscious mind:

·Thoughts you are aware of

·Currently processing

3)Define and identify the functions of the id, ego, and superego:


·Primitive impulses, unconscious

·Pleasure principle


·Conscious, decision maker

·Reality Principle


·Unconscious; conscience

·Sense of morality; constraints of society

4)Explain the purpose of defense mechanisms in Freud’s theory:

Freud’s theory

·Self-protective “distortions” of the truth

·Unconscious strategies to defend against anxiety

Repression: Forgetting anxiety producing memories

Example:Forgetting about a mistake you made

Regression: Reverting to earlier behavior patterns

Example: Going “back to the bottle” under stress

Displacement: Divert impulses to a safer target

Example:Yell at your spouse instead of the boss

Sublimation: Unacceptable impulses to better activities

Example: Writing novels about unacceptable topics

Rationalization: Self-justifying explanations

Example: I deserve expensive desserts because I studied hard.

Projection: Attribute your impulses to others

5)Summarize the basic assumptions associated with Freud’s psychosexual stages:


·0 to 18 months

·Pleasure comes from mouth: sucking, biting, chewing; emotional & physical dependency


·18 months to 3 years

·Pleasure comes from elimination; toilet training; Retention, messiness, control issues


·3 to 6 years

·Pleasure from genitals; attraction to opposite sex parent; identification with same sex parent; Oedipal & Electra complex


·6 years to puberty

·Sexual feelings less important; associate with same sex peers & model same sex adults



·Pleasure from mature sexuality; Sex is primary motivation

6)Explain the big five personality traits:

Open to experience: Curious, adventurous, appreciates art & emotion

Conscientious: Self-discipline, planning, achievement

Extraversion: Positive emotions; enjoys company

Agreeableness: Compassionate; cooperative

Neuroticism: Negative emotions; instability, anxiety

7)Explain the views of humanistic theorists regarding personality:

Self-Concept: Our beliefs about who we are

Self Esteem: Positive feelings about the self

8)Explain the views of Abraham Maslow on self-actualization:

·Physiological Needs (water, food, sleep, sex)

·Safety Needs: World as Safe, Predictable

·Love, Belonging, Acceptance

·Esteem, Recognition, respect, competence


9)Explain bandura’s social-cognitive view of personality:


Reciprocal Determinism: The complex interaction between personality, environment, and behavior.

10)Describe evidence for and against the view that personality is inherited:

·Scientific Research

·Genetic, environmental, and interactive influences on human behavior.

·Twin Studies

·Family Studies

·Adoption Studies

·Molecular Genetics (DNA)

·Epigenetics (environmental influences on gene expression)

11)Explain the differences between objective and projective personality test:

Objective Tests:

·Personality Inventories = questionnaires, e.g. MMPI

·T/F or MC; answers associated with trait or diagnosis

Projective Tests:

·Ask for meaning of ambiguous stimuli

·Rorschach ask to explain image in Inkblots

·Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) ask to tell stories about ambiguous pictures


1)Explain the difference between stress and stressors:

Stress: Physiological response to threat. Positive stress (wedding)

Stressors: Negative stress (class)

2)Describe the stages of the general adaptions syndrome:

Three stage response to long-term stress.


·Body releases stress hormones, cortisol


·Body adapts to threat; tries to return to normal functions; glucose & BP increase


·Reserves gone; immunity & organs fail

3)Describe the features of post-traumatic stress disorders:

·Response to an extreme stressor, e.g. war, rape, natural disaster, life-threatening event.

·Symptoms include: anxiety, intrusive thoughts, emotional problems, distracted

·Substance abuse & family problems common

·Medical and psychological treatment needed.

4)Explain the differences between problem-focused and emption-focused coping:

Problem-focused coping: Trying to change situation or problem that is causing the stress.

Emotion-focused coping: Trying to reduce the effects of stress by controlling emotions.

5)Explain the purpose and structure of the social readjustment rating scale:

The scale was developed by Holmes and Rahe to measure stress by ranking different life events from most to least stressful and assigning a point value to each event.

6)Describe the impact of daily hassles of stress and health:

Hassles: small problems of daily living that can accumulate and sometimes become a major source of stress.

7)Describe the effects of stress on the immune system:

Explanations in terms of interactions between biological, psychological, and social variables.

Psychoneuroimmunology: Studies interaction between immune system, nervous system & psychological processes

Health Psychology: Focus on how interactions of biology, behavior & social situation influence health & illness.

8)List the factors that influence individual capacity for resisting the effects of stress:

·Individual differences

Fight-Flight Response:

·More common in men

·Emotional and Behavioral Response to stress that increases the readiness for action.

Tend and Befriend:

·More common in women

·Behavioral reaction to stress that involves activities designed to create social networks that provide protection from stress.


1)List the criteria for abnormal behavior:

2)Describe the purpose, organization, and content of the DSM-5:

·Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

·American Psychiatric Association

·Currently DSM IV-TR

·Common language and standard criteria for classifying mental disorders

Controversies include:

·Cultural bias (e.g. sexual disorders)

·Medical rather than behavioral model

·Diagnosing, e.g. ADHD, autism, Asperger’s.

3)Define and describe the group of disorders called anxiety disorders:

Anxiety: Irrational fear, dread, or agitation; physiological arousal

Phobias: unreasonable fear; avoidance

·Specific phobia: clearly defined object or situation.

·Social phobia: extreme shyness or discomfort in social situations

 Panic Disorder:

·Sudden attacks of terror leading to behavioral changes & physical symptoms

4)Describe the features of obsessive-compulsive disorders:

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder


• Repetitive, distressing or frightening thoughts


• Repetitive behaviors (an attempt to calm the thoughts)

5)Describe the characteristics of dissociative identity disorder:

·2 or more distinct personalities in the same person

·Memory disruption regarding the “alter”


·Some psychologists don’t believe the disorder really exists

·Not the same as Schizophrenia

6)Describe the features of schizophrenia:

Psychosis: loss of contact with reality

Positive symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate affect, disorganized speech and behavior

Negative symptoms: social withdrawal, deterioration of adaptive behavior, flat affect, poor problem-solving abilities

7)List the possible causes of schizophrenia:

·Genes: runs in families

·Brain: loss of neurons; enlarged ventricles

·Neurotransmitters: excess dopamine

·Poverty, malnutrition, disease

·Prenatal damage: viruses


·Substance Abuse may trigger

·Interactions between items above

8)Describe the features of major depression:

·Low mood (despair): withdrawal, loss of interest & pleasure; eating & sleeping disturbance

·More than 2 weeks

·Impaired functioning

·Twice as many women

·May have psychotic features

·Suicidal thoughts or attempts

9)Summarize the features of bipolar disorder:

 Bipolar disorder: Swings from low (depression) to high (mania); near normal in between

Mania: Exceptional energy, enthusiasm, agitation, irritable.

10)Summarize the risk factors for suicide:

·Diagnosable psychiatric disorder

·Male, esp. older and physically ill

·Method (guns succeed more than pills)

·Prior attempts, family history, exposure

·History of being abused


·High risk behavior

·Adolescence 2% attempt

11)Summarize the features of the personality disorders:

·Inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling or relating to others

·These patterns cause problems in personal, social & work situations.

·Inability to understand needs of others

·Three “clusters”

·Odd, eccentric




1)Summarize the various approaches to therapy:


·The “talking cure”

·Lengthy, expensive

·Freud’s techniques include:

·Free association

·Dream analysis


·Insight and interpretation

Client (Person) Centered Therapy:

·Humanistic Perspective

·Focus on Personal Growth

·Carl Roger’s Techniques include:

·Develop therapeutic alliance:

·Therapist is genuine

·Unconditional Positive Regard

·Empathy with client

·Promote congruence between real and ideal self.

Behavior Therapy:

·Based on principles of learning

·Focus on present, specific change desired

·Baseline measured; goals established.

·Use of associations, reinforcements, punishment, cues, extinction, shaping, etc.

·Specific goals include: skills training, anxiety reduction, elimination of problem behavior.

Cognitive Therapy:

·Includes cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) & Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (RET or REBT)

·Clients identify distorted or incorrect beliefs that are causing problems

·Learn to think in a new, more logical ways.

·Reframe situations, e.g. “challenges” or “opportunities” instead of crises or disasters

·Homework, short term; new patterns of thinking that can be used in future situations.

Biological Therapies:

·Medical Model


·Often combined with talk therapies

·If non-response to talk and drugs, may require:

·ECT (electroconvulsive therapy)


·Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

2)Explain the difference between cognitive and behavioral therapy: