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CHAPTER 6Compositionality: The concept that there are fixed rules for combining units of language in terms of their form that result in fixed meaning relationships between the words that are joined together.Constituent: A syntactic category consisting of a word or (more often) a group of words (e.g., noun phrase, prepositional phrase) that clump together and function as a single unit within a sentence.intransitive verbs: Verbs that take a subject but no object, such as (Joe) sneezes or (Keesha) laughs.noun phrase (NP): An abstract, higher-order syntactic category that can consist of a single word or of many words, but in which the main syntactic element is a noun, pronoun, or proper nameprepositional phrase (PP): A syntactic constituent, or higher-order category, that in English, consists of a preposition (e.g., in, under, before) followed by a noun phrase (NPsemantic bootstrapping hypothesis: The idea that children come equipped with innate expectations of certain grammatical categories, as well as built-in mappings between key concept types and grammatical categories.telegraphic speech: Speech that preserves the correct order of words in sentences, but drops many of the small function words such as the, did, or to.transitive verbs: Verbs that take both a subject and an object.verb islands: Hypothetical syntactic frames that are particular to specific verbs, and that specify (1) whether that verb can combine with nouns to its left or right and/or (2) the roles that the co-occurring nouns can play in an event (for example, the do-er, the thing that is acted upon, and so on. CHAPTER 10 accommodation:The process of updating a mental model to include information that is presupposed by a speaker, as evident by his use of specific presupposition-triggering expressions. Antecedent:A pronoun’s referent or referential match; that is, the expression (usually a proper name or a descriptive noun or noun phrase) that refers to the same person or entity as the pronoun. bridging inference:An inference that connects some of the content in a sentence with previous material in the text, or with information encoded in the mental model.elaborative inference:Refers to inferences that are not required in order to make a discourse coherent, but that enrich the meanings of sentences to include material that’s not explicitly encoded on the linguistic content of the sentence.explanation-based view of discourse processing:Theoretical account of discourse processing that emphasizes the active role of the reader as engaged in goal-driven processes of interpretation. The meaning that a reader constructs us assumed to be informed by her particular goals, and her attempts to construct a coherent representation that will explain why certain entities and actions are mentioned in a text.focus constructions:Syntactic structures that have the effect of putting special emphasis or focus on certain elements within the sentence.implicit causality:Expectations about the probable cause/effect structure of events denoted by particular verbs. it-cleft sentence:A type of focus construction in which a single clause has been split into two, typically with the form “It is/was X that/who Y.” The element corresponding to X in this frame is focused. For example, in the sentence It was Sam who left Fred, the focus is on Sam.memory-driven account of discourse processing:Theoretical approach to discourse processing that emphasizes the role of passive, automatic memory-based processes, in which the integration of incoming discourse information is accomplished by activating existing representations in memory. mental models:Also known as situation models. Refers to detailed conceptual representation of the real-world situation that a sentence evokes.predictive inference:A type of elaborative inference that involves making predictions about the likely outcome of a sentence.Presupposition:An implicit assumption that is signaled by specific linguistic expressions, and whose existence or truth is taken for granted as background information. Proposition:The core meaning of a sentence as expressed by its linguistic content. This core meaning captures the real-world event or the situation that would have to occur in order for that sentence to be judged to be true.repeated-name penalty:The finding that under some circumstances, it takes longer to read a sentence in which a highly salient referent is referred to by a full noun phrase (NP) rather than by a pronoun.reverse cohesion effect: readers retain more information from a text in which the coherence relations between sentences is not made explicit and must be inferred by the reader.wh- cleft sentence:A type of focus construction in which one clause has been divided into two, with the first clause introduced by a wh- element, as in the sentences