-Three ring model: Economy Environment Society àHealth, Efficiency, Justice

-Ecological footprint

5Categories: 1. Fuel combustion (carbon footprint à energy) 2. Fishing (seafood) 3. Exploitation of natural resources and forests (timber and paper), 4. Livestock production (food and fibre), 5. Cultivation

-The commission on sustainable development under UN 1992 Dec

-The world summit on sustainable development, Johannesburg, south Africa

-Dimensions of sustainability

Geographical, social, economic, cultural, ecological

-8 guiding principles of sustainable development

Economy, natural resources, environmental quality, biodiversity, health & hygiene, mobility, leisure & cultural vibrancy, society and social infrastructure

-SUSDEV21 is the consultancy study commissioned by planning department

-Asked for public opinions on waste management, renewable resources, urban renewal in 2004, air quality, building design in 2007

-HK: Landfill and recycling & composting only (no incineration)

-Taiwan has 36 incinerators in operation

-Our electricity comes from: 20% nuclear power; 60% coal; 20% natural gas (Castle peak and Lamma Island)

-Develop rural area and urban renewal

1.Sustainable urban living space

2.Improving city environment

3.Addressing urban decay

4.Further development in the NT

-Urban renewal: environment bureau vs development bureau

-Environmental Policy and Government Framework towards sustainable development in Hong Kong Advisory Council on the Environment (ACE) 環境咨詢委員會 § Country Parks Board (CPB) 郊野公園委員會 § Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (EEAC)能源效益咨詢委員會 § Environmental Campaign Committee (ECC) 環境運動委員會 § Town Planning Board (TPB) 城市規劃委員會

-Government’s Roles: [1] Identifying the problems) [2] Setting goals and targets) [3] Legal actions: legislature and law enforcement) [4] balancing economic development and conservation

-What is our Government doing? Legislature for a better environment to:

üProtect Natural Habitats: establishing Sites with Special Scientific Interests (SSSI) , Nature Reserve and Parks (Country Parks and Marine Parks) by Law

ûHow about conservation in private land?

ûMore Parks (marine parks and geo-parks) needed?

üAvoid Environmental Degradation: EIA Ordinance, Harbour Protection Ordinance, Ordinances for protection of endangered species, various pollution ordinances, etc.

ûAre they enough? Green Taxes? Policy?

û Who make the legislation? Who do the law enforcement?


-1. Stop Unsustainable Urbanization

-2. Legal Regulation is important, but some laws or policy are out-dated due to political lag in a civil society

-3. Consultation Processes could be improved

-4. Cross-boundary Pollution cannot be resolved easily

-5. Sustainable development: a paradigm shift from development first to conservation first

Lecture 2 Urban living space and planning policy

Vision Planning 2030

1. Positioning, set aims and targets

2. Consultation: Planning department (out-source)

3. Sustainable Development: balance supply and demand

 4. Four strategic themes

(strengthening links with Mainland, enhancing Hong Kong’s competitiveness, improving quality of life, reinforcing identity and image)

5.Seven planning objectives

(a) supply and demand of housing land; (b) supply and demand of industrial land; (c) supply and demand of office land; (d) tourist facilities and land reserved for tourism (e) conservation areas; (f) port and port-related facilities; (g) overall land supply, transport network, INDICATORS (mobility) based on SUSDEV21: distance, speed, cost, pollutants, etc.

 and environmental conditions.







·興建集體運輸MTR)公路網()port facilities



Current Condition of harbor:

Noise pollution, poor water quality , low ecological value

Reclamation of the harbor: good environment to walk, bettwe view from Kowloon, reduce traffics

6. Planning procedures (legal procedures)

7. Three residential density zones in the metropolitan area.

8. Land use planning: land supply VS conservation. SGA: strategic growth areas from reclamation, new development area and urban renewal

9. Foster sustainability and a quality living environment

Low Carbon living:

Tram facilities (Peak tram, normal trams)

Urban designs

Urban development vs cultural preservation

High density n Air pollution (global climate change); land wastage; noise; safety; n Microclimate change n Traffic congestion; imbalance use of cross harbor tunnels n Cargo & freight transport; container terminals/ Logistic 3. Transports in Hong Kong Park ?

Wall Effect (enhanced Heat Island Effect) à Materials of buildings or ground absorb and reflect heat n Building blocks constructed as a wall with poor ventilation à Heat released by vehicles, airconditioners trapped à Air pollution worsen because air pollutants absorb heat à Heat released from buildings at night à Enhanced Heat Island Effect

Wind corridor Roads provide spaces for wind to flow throughout the town center à Tseung Kwan O has already applied wind corridor when planning

Building design Wind pass through to the whole flat à Central wind corridor and cross-ventilation through re-entrant à Besides flat, surrounding streets will also gain improved wind flow àMore comfortable and less energy consumption

Stair-wise design Lower plot ratio & shorter building near harbor to prevent shielding effect

Conclusions: 1. Public space is for everyone 2. Sustainable means energy saving (carbon neutral?) and low carbon living 3. Waste reduction and use environmental friendly and recycled materials 4. Good ventilation, avoid heatisland and wall effects

Guiding principles: 1. Bottom up (由下而上individaul) 2. Public space 3. Sustainable development 4. Legally bound policy

Lecture 3 Zero Waste Policy

Solid Waste management Incinerators: reduce 3000 tonnes per day, electricity generation, recyclable materials produced, 10% size reduction

HK: Fluidised-bed incineration for sewage sludge treatment

Zero Waste – A paradigm shift Waste Management Strategies: 1. Landfill (adopted) 2. Incineration 3. Recycling (partly successful) 4. Prevention [Construction waste: ocean dumping/reclamation/guagdong]

Zero Landfill YES, but most wastes will be turned to the incinerator. Is that what you want? An incinerator next to you?  Zero Waste YES, only if we introduce new packaging laws, and new green taxes (e.g. tyre levy, plastic levy); composting plant is also needed to replace landfills and incinerators

Statistics: Domestic 43% 22à24% commercial and industrial, 25à28% constriction; food waste increases (40% of municipal solid waste)

Goal: 55% recycle, 22% landfill, 23% incinceration

Major materials recovered Paper, ferrous metals, (very little plastics)

Systemic recycling scheme, Recycling Bureau, producer responsibility scheme e.g. green taxes and household waste disposal charging scheme, Financial aid to support waste recycling collection and the business

Lecture 4 Climate change and energy policy

1.Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Effect

China 2014 Co2 emission increased by 29.54 % 23.33 % in 2008

Greenhouse gases: co2, mehane, halocarbons, nitrous oxides, ozone

2.The Impacts of Global Warming

Arctic perennial sea ice has been diminishing at a rate of 9% per decade. Ice from land could raise sea level Reduced ice from ocean changes currents

 Reduction of Biodiversity ¡ Losing Habitats due to temperature rises ¡ Reduction of freshwater supply trapped in mountains l More Diseases ¡ Endemic diseases increasing health risks l Extreme Weathers more storms, floods, droughts… Unpredictable climate change ¡ Buffering power of planet earth is lowered, leading to unforeseeable climate change ¡leading to fluctuating economy, e.g. Hurricanes in Mexico Bay are threatening oil prices to surge, drought lead to depletion of resources supply, etc………

3. Kyoto Protocol February, 2005

reduce emissions of 6 gases by an average of 6- 8% (relative to 1990 levels) over the five year period from 2008 to 2012.  à: Scheme for Trading Green House Gas Emissions Rights and encourage international co-operations to achieve carbon neutral

Developing countries increased, industrialized countries decreased

1. Joint Implementation (JI): international cooperation 2. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): new technology to cut emissions 3. Emission Trading (ET): set ceiling to trade

Carbon market: carbon tax in france

Carbon trading: is the practice of buying and selling the right to produce carbon dioxide emissions

Carbon intensity: carbon emission per unit of economic output e.g. GDP

4. Sustainable Energy Policy

coal 54% à <10%; nuclear 23% à 50%; gas 23% à 40%; RE 3-4%

Substitutions (nuclear, RE,biostorage) reduction (Efficiency (reduced miles traveled, increased building and electricity efficiency) § Conservation (reduced transport with mass transit systems) § Fossil-Fuel-Based fuel switching (natural gas), biogas, and carbon capture)

Lecture 5 Air pollution and its health impacts

-Air pollutants 50% carbon monoxide • 16% sulfur oxides • 15% volatile organic compounds • 14% nitrogen oxides • 5% suspended particulate matter

-Primary polluants, secondary pollutants àacid rain, photochemical smog, cancer-causing

-Main source: power stations, vehicle emissions, incinerator, landfill gas

-Transboundary air pollution

-Diseases related to air pollution l Asthma (SO2 or any chemicals can induce complications of asthma patients) l Bronchitis (all chemicals, RSP and NOx lower lung’s immune response to microorganisms) l Cardiovascular (CO, NOx affect pulmonary and circulatory systems) l Discomfort (headache, stomach upset) l Eye irritation (ozone or acidic response) l lung cancer (inhalation of diesel suspended particulates, fine particles, Cd 2+ from cigarette smoking)

-l Outdoor and indoor air pollutants are chemicals that would affect our health l We need to detect (monitor) them l We need to set up our air quality objectives l We need better policy to reduce air pollutants

Lecture 6 Protecting endangered species

-Biodiversity: 1, number of different species (species diversity), 2, variety of different habitats (habitat diversity), and 3, range of genetic variations (genetic diversity).

-Human population explosion • Species introduction (30%) • Habitat destruction (30%) • Hunting (30%) • Climate change or extreme weather (?? %)

-3.1 Hong Kong’s own marine fishery is depleted by: 1. Overexploitation by trawling, 2. destructive fishing practices (e.g. cyanide fishing and dynamite fishing), 3. Mariculture (small fish captured for grouper culture), 4. habitat loss (land reclamation), and 5. Pollution

Solutions: seafood guide

• Habitat Protection and conservation in Country Parks and specialized Natural Reserve (Mai Po, Tai Po Kau, etc) • Sites Of Special Scientific Interests, SSSIs. • Species protections via Wild Animals Protection Ordinance, Forest and Countryside Ordinance, Animals and Plants Ordinance (Protection of Endangered Species), CITES (Convention on Int’l Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna) • Cannot act proactively to protect our ecosystem; a more comprehensive conservation policy is badly needed. Existing laws and regulations are fragmented and retroactive. • EIA procedure (prioritized development, not conservation).

Lecture 7 Hong Kong Marine Environment

Corals: breeding and nursery ground, pharmaceutical products, protect coasts from high surf conditions, remove CO2 from water, recreational place for human divers and snorkelers

-Land area: 1036 km2 • Marine area: 1651 km2 • Coastline: 1180km • Island: 263

-Characteristics of enclosed bays: • poor tidal flushing • limited water circulation & self-cleaning capacity (less severe for bays facing South China Sea) • vulnerable to pollution

Plankton (phytoplankton, zooplankton)

-Environmental implications of algal blooms ¨ De-oxygenation of seawater ¨ Impacts on fish farming ¤ Fish-kill linked to n De-oxygenation of seawater n Toxin irritates fish gills that leads to suffocation n Direct uptake of toxins/ accumulation of toxins through the food chain ¨ Human health risk ¤ Paralytic shellfish poison, Ciguatera fish poison…etc. ¨ Aesthetic problems

-Zooxanthellae(unicellular algae) ¨ Photosynthesis ¤ produce organic materials ¨ Significantly increase the rate corals deposit their calcareous skeleton [symbiosis]

Coral bleaching

Pressure in hk coral communities • Pollution • Land reclamation • Illegal dynamite fishing (blast fishing) and coral collection • Ghost nets, garbage etc. • Leisure activities

-40% of Hong Kong land areas are country parks Only 2% of marine areas are marine parks or reserve


1. controlling or stopping activities which may cause 

-damage to the marine environment 2. enhancing the wildlife and their habitats 3. providing ways and means for human activities (e.g. recreation facilities) to be integrated with the conservation of marine resources 4. providing opportunities for research, education and a better understanding of marine life

Lecture 8 Conservation Policy and Environmental Sustainability

1.Ecology of Hong Kong

Disappearing coastline, disappearing wetland [àCovered by water facilitate nutrients leached out for better productivity àCoastal area, mangroves, e.g. Mai Po Nature Reserve and Ramsar Site in Deep Bayà  Important bird migration conservation site] and country parks , management of country parks and eotourism, canalization of local rivers, sustaining biodiversity [Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan BSAPà mention duty only, no adoption of comments from steering committee, no concrete ideas, no cooperation with govt sectors]

development options: Option 1: Conservation (Upgrading); Option 2: Recreation (Moderate Development); Option 3: Tourism (High Growth).

– 64 SSSIs

2. Existing Policy

3. Scoring system is needed access relative ecological importance of site

common issues: how to define and evaluate ecological values? How to do protection on private lands? Land use policy?

4. Private Partnership no use

Development Planning 1. Zoning and outline is important 2. Buffer zones are needed 3. Developments need to be justified 4. EIA [environmental impact assessment] is very important