3.1. Models of consumer behavior. The markets that are seen through strategic windows are not abstract concepts—they contain people.  In order to understand how changes in the market occur, not only does an organization have to understand the broader issues in the business environment and the views of the market perceived by competitors, but it also has to understand the buying behavior of the people themselves. In studying buyer behavior, a distinction is made between complex decision-making situations and those in which little consideration is given to the purchase being made. Where a product is relatively expensive and possibly technologically complex, prospective purchasers often go through a complex search and evaluation process prior to making a purchase. Various models of consumer behavior have been developed over the years. The models reflect the different buying situations in which consumers find themselves. Factors influencing consumer behavior must be considered as well as similar factors influencing the buying decisions in business to business transactions. An understanding of these factors and how they influence the buying decision are extremely important when putting together a selling strategy. Market research also plays an important part in helping to identify relevant facts about buyer behavior (consumer or organizational) and provides all kinds of information which forms the basis of strategy formulation. Consumer (def.): el que consume el producto. . Customer / Buyer (def.): el que lo compra. Client (def.): el que es fiel, compra regularmente.  Categories and types of products that affects in customer analysis:Convenience products: Frequently purchased items at the supermarket are often purchased out of habit and consumers do not undertake an extensive search for information nor do they engage in extensive evaluation prior to making a purchase. Consumers search for cues as to what the product is like. Colour of the packaging, for example, may be perceived by consumers to imply a given level of quality. Routine high frequency purchase, habitual consumption. “List purchased” products. Sporadic consumption (but planned consumption). Impulsive category of products: Impulse buying for many people may well be the main method of purchasing and it can create emotional friction in the mind of the consumer. This happens frequently where the price of goods is substantial relative to the purchaser’s resources. Specialty or specific products: Products with high loyalty levels or “augmented” products with a high loyalty levels due to a big differentiation perceived (eg. Might be “specialized” as Sensodyne, the toothpaste or in other sense like buying jewelry in the most BCN store, Rabat). Non-searched products: The product exists but it is unknown for the consumer so the need will never be awaken until discovering it (by him/herself or by informer role). 3.2. Factors affecting consumer behavior  3.2.1. Factors affecting consumer behavior: They exist several factors that affect directly on consumer reactions and perception and really influence in behavior when dealing purchase plan. Some of this factors are directly related with the environment, social topics, culture, etc. Some of them are: Prejudices: mental building of consumers might have differences when perceiving brand image (eg Nestlé in India). Cultural behaviors: in different cultures different behaviors and costumes might be accepted or rejected. Ecological factors: some countries or targets are more receptive when looking for products with eco-friendly ways of doing by the companies. Motivations: Marketers need to know what motivates people to buy particular brands or services. Given this information it may be possible to gain a competitive advantage in the design and/or marketing of a product. This can be done through persuading consumers that a product is better able to satisfy their wants and needs on account of the benefits it offers. Attitudes: People have beliefs and attitudes which affect their purchasing behavior. Brand images are related to the beliefs and attitudes of people and as a result of these images, people make purchase decisions. Attitudes are associated with the way in which people behave and act. Life-style that different occupations engender is thought to influence actual buying behavior.3.2.2. Phases of buying decision. Need recognition. In a voluntary way, the consumer wants to solve a “lack of sensation”, a wish or a need not satisfied. It could be stimulated out there or internal (hungry, thirsty, …) by endogens or exogenous factors. Searching for information. Need of getting informed about the ways to be satisfied. Information could be incomplete or subjective just depending on the source and data collected.  Active searching: waste of time and effort.  Passive searching: receptive to hearing from. Alternatives evaluation. Just comparing different products or ways to get satisfied. Gets a punctuation or list (subjective) or main advantages/disadvantages from the product attributes. Buying decision. Consumer is able to buy, decide to buy (forward, in the future) or even not finally executing purchase wish. After-buying behavior. Wishes and expectations before buying can be: under satisfied, satisfied, over satisfied. After trying the product he/she could become an informer role just for recommending the product and motivates experiences.