Geology

Temperature: Average energy of molecules or atoms in a material – Kinetic energy of a substance. Heat: Total energy of molecules or atoms in a material,You can have a large amount of heat but low temperatures Can have high temperatures but little heat Latent heat: The amount of heat required to completely change a quantity of water from phase A to phase B with no corresponding change in temperature. “Latent” means “hidden” Residence timesResidence time of a species = mass (or volume) in reservoir/rate of inflow or outflow Coriolis effect: The rotation of the Earth causes an interesting phenomenon on free moving objects on the Earth. Objects in the Northern Hemisphere are deflected to the right, while objects in the Southern Hemisphere are deflected to the left. The Coriolis effect, thus tries to force winds to shift towards the right or left.Wind regimes(trades, westerlies, easterlies)- The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of surface winds from the east toward the west (easterly) found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth’s atmosphereCurrents (wind-driven, boundary current) warm/cold and gyres-One of the driving forces of global air currents is the uneven heating of the Earth’s surface. … Hot air rises and cold air sinks, so air currents form when the atmosphere moves excess hot air from the warmer low latitudes to cooler high latitudes, and cool air rushes in to replace itCoastal upwelling- Upwelling often happens where wind blows along a coastline. The wind causes the water at the ocean surface to move perpendicular to it, away from the coast, Deep ocean circulation-Deep ocean currents are driven by density and temperature gradients.Ocean waves(characteristics, motion)- Waves transmit energy, not water, and are commonly caused by the wind as it blows across the ocean, lakes, and rivers. Waves caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun are called tides refraction, longshore transport:- the fact or phenomenon of light, radio waves, etc. being deflected in passing obliquely through the interface between one medium and another or through a medium of varying density. cliff erosion, features, barrier islands, shoreline stabilization- Cliff erosion is a common storm-induced hazard along the West Coast. While coastal erosion affects all regions of the USA erosion rates and potential impacts are highly localized.Shoreline Stabilization Techniques. … It is the gradual, although sometimes rapid, removal of sediments from the shoreline. It is caused by a number of factors including storms, wave action, rain, ice, winds,tides/causes, variation in cycles and patterns- Gravity is one major force that creates tides.Sir Isaac Newton explained that ocean tides result from the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon on the oceans of the earth Latent heat vs. sensible heat: Latent and sensible heat are types of energy released or absorbed in the atmosphere. Latent heat is related to changes in phase between liquids, gases, and solids. Sensible heat is related to changes in temperature of a gas or object with no change in phase Dew-point temperature: is the temperature to which air must be cooled, at a given pressure and water- vapor content, for it to reach saturation; the temperature at which dew begins to form. Adiabatic temperature change: is temperature change that is brought about through changes in volume such as expansion or contraction. Relative Humidity: The ratio of water vapor content to water vapor capacity. Water vapor capacity = Saturated mixing ratio. Saturated mixing ratio is temperature dependent vapor content. Relative humidity = Vapor capacity/Saturated mixing ratio. Air pressure: is the weight of the atmosphere pressing down on the earth. It is measured by a barometer in units called millibars.The pressure-gradient force: is the force that results when there is a difference in pressure across a surface. In general, a pressure is a force per unit area, across a surface. Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other. Dry friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact.Cyclones are a storm or system of winds that rotates around a center of low atmospheric pressure and moves counter clockwise. Anticyclonesare is a system of winds that rotates around a center of high atmospheric pressure local winds: Local winds are winds that blow over a limited area. Local winds blow between small low and high pressure systems. The main types of local winds are: Sea breezes and land breezes.Air masses: An air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content. Air masses cover many hundreds or thousands of miles, and adapt to the characteristics of the surface below them. They are classified according to latitude and their continental or maritime source regions. Orographic lifting: Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain.warm and cold fronts: A cold front is the transition zone where a cold air mass is replacing a warmer air mass. Cold fronts generally move from northwest to southeast. The air behind a cold front is noticeably colder and drier than the air ahead of it. A warm front is a density discontinuity located at the leading edge of a homogeneous warm air mass, and is typically located on the equator-facing edge of an isotherm gradient. Cold fronts move faster than warm fronts.Frontal wedgingis where cold air meets warm air. The warm air will be forced up. Convergence is when winds from two directions meet and the only way to go is up.Convective upliftis where the sun heats the surface and the heated air above it rises Mid latitude cyclone: A cyclone is an area of low pressure around which the winds flow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Thunderstorms are small-scale severe weather events associated with frequent lightning, high winds, and heavy rainfall. Tornadoesare violent storms that strike as a powerful rotating mixture of wind and thunderstorm clouds, extending from the clouds to the ground in a funnel shape.Hurricanes:A hurricane is a type of cyclone, which is a generic term for any powerful, rotating storm that originates in warm tropical oceans and creates strong winds and heavy rain.