Agro-industrialisation refers to the use of the industrial system in agricultural production, especially in terms of processes such as mechanisation, automatization, research and marketing. It is the form of modern farming that refers to the industrialised production of livestock, poultry, fish and crops. Very large farms, Concentration on one(monoculture) or a small number of farm products, A high level of mechanisation, Heavy usage of fertilisers, pesticide and herbicides, Sophisticated ICT management systems, Highly qualified managers… E.g. the Canadian Prairies, The corn and wheat belts in USA, the Russian steppes, Mato Grosso in Brazil (they all have a large scale of agro-industrialisation). Agro-industrialisation is a consequence of the globalisation of agriculture, the profit ambitions of large agribusiness companies and the drive for cheaper food production. Environmental impact of capital-intensive farming: Deforestation, Land degradation (chemicals)  and desertification, Irrigation may lower the local water table. In arid climates it may lead to soil salinization due to intense evaporation. Contamination of water supplies, Air pollution (animals – methane, NOx), Increasing concern about the long-term health of farmworkers, Landscape change, Declines in biodiversity. The impact of food on the environment: GHG emission. Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution. Green Revolution the introduction of high-yielding seeds and modern agricultural techniques in developing countries. Environment impact of Green revolution: High inputs of fertiliser and pesticide have been required to optimise production.The problems of salinization and waterlogged soils have increased along with the expansion of the irrigated area, leading to the abandonment of significant areas of land. High chemical inputs have had a considerable negative effect on biodiversity. Some people suffer ill health due to contaminated water and other forms of agricultural pollution. E-waste is a growing problem in all countries because of the rapid spread of ICT. Technological advance is so rapid that there is a high and ever-increasing turnover of products with an escalating amount of equipment becoming obsolete. E-waste from HIL to LIC e.g. Europe to China (NIC). The consequences could be damaging to public health and the local environments if not addressed correctly. China produced about 2.3 million tonnes of e-waste domestically a year, second only to the USA with 3 million tonnes. In August 2008, the environmental organisation Greenpeace highlighted Ghana as a major recipient of foreign e-waste in an article entitled ‘Poisoning the Poor – Electronic Waste in Ghana’. Previously Greenpeace had brought the attention of the world to similar practices in China, India and Nigeria. This waste is often laden with toxic chemicals such as lead, mercury and brominated flame retardants. Most workers, many of them children, wear no protective clothing or equipment. The e-waste problem is becoming particularly serious in developing countries due to:  a lack of legislation and enforcement • a lack of controlled take-back systems • informal sector dominance in recycling • a lack of awareness by government, institutions and the general public • illegal importation of e-waste from developing countries, often using false documentation • the increasing outsourcing of ICT from developed to developing countries. Transboundary pollution: acid rain, increase acidification due to human activities, pH level less than 5.56. Sulphur dioxide is the major producers. Dry deposition occurs close to the source of emission and cause damage to buildings and structures. Wet deposition occurs when the acids are dissolved in precipitation and may fall at great distances from the sources. To reduce acid rain: reduce use of fossil fuel, Use less sulphur rich fossil fuel, Use alternative energy sources that is renewable and clean, Removing the pollutants before they reach the atmosphere. pollution incidents (incidental pollution) (e.g. Chernobyl and Bhopal) and longer-term pollution (sustained pollution). Chernobyl, Ukraine. The world’s worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. Reactor number four exploded, sending a plume of highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere which drifted over extensive parts of Europe and eastern North America. Two people died in the initial explosion and over 336 000 people were evacuated and resettled. In total 56 direct deaths and an estimated 4000 extra cancer deaths have been attributed to Chernobyl. The estimated cost of $200 billion makes Chernobyl the most expensive disaster in modern history. Greenpeace is arguably the most well-known international civil society organisation working to improve environmental management around the world that is found in Vancouver, Canada in 1971. Aim: Catalysing an energy revolution to address climate change, the main threat facing the planet. It aims to build on a protection and recovery system established to manage land-based over-exploitation. Protecting the world’s ancient forests and the animals, plants and people that depend on them. Working for disarmament and peace by tackling the causes of conflict and calling for the elimination of all nuclear weapons. Reduce synthesise of chemical. Campaigning for sustainable agriculture by rejecting genetically engineered organisms, protecting biodiversity and encouraging socially responsible farming. In the UK, Greenpeace has been campaigning against plans to build a third runway and sixth terminal at London’s Heathrow airport.The expansion of Heathrow is an issue that could drag on for some time because of such opposing views.Despite its founding in North America, Greenpeace has achieved much more success in Europe, where it has more members and generates most of its funds. Like any large campaigning organisation, Greenpeace is not without its critics.Greenpeace has been variously criticized by government, industrials and political lobbyists and other environmental groups for being too radical and mainstream, for bordering on eco-tourism, for causing environmental damage and for valuing non-human causes over human causes. However, this is not always an easy process, as various studies of the relationship between greater environmental knowledge and changing attitudes have shown. Attitudes can be difficult to change and this can vary considerably with the issues under consideration. The prevalence of other pressing issues at the time can have a substantial impact. At times of economic crisis or when there are major political or social concerns, people may downgrade environmental issues on their personal agendas. The link between economic development and environmental awareness is well established although significant variations can still occur. For example, the Scandinavian countries have generally shown greater concern for environmental issues than other affluent nations. Civic society is any organization or movement that works in the area between the household, the private sector and the state to negotiate matters of public concern, Civic societies include non-government organization (NGOs), community groups, trade unions, academic institutions and faith-based organization. Civil society is composed of all the civic and social organizations or movements that form the basis pf a functioning society: Local groups fronted by individuals (such as Tim Smit of the Eden project, Dureell trust for conservation) International groups (such as Greenpeace and World-wide fund for nature) Public servants such as politicians and scientists. Mining (metals (iron ore and copper), industrial minerals (lime and soda ash). Construction materials (sand and gravel), energy minerals (coal, oil and natural gas)). The impact of mining: habitat destruction, smelting causes deforestation. (The Serra Pelada gold mine was briefly the world’s largest alluvial gold deposit. High mercury has discovered in local water courses and habitat. Pollution is resulted from extraction, transport and processing of the raw materials, and affect air, soil and water. Water is affected by heavy metal pollution, acid mine drainage, eutrophication and deoxygenation. Dust can be local problem and Mercury is also found in the water. (in brazil, up to 100 tonnes of mercury have been introduced into rivers by gold prospectors.) Mercury is very toxic and could enter food chain. Derelict land resulted from extraction produces landforms of various sizes, shapes and origin. A major subdivision is between excavations and heaps (environmental impact).