The relief is the aspect of the Earth’s surface regardless of the elements bioticos.Ese relief is represented in topographic maps. The relief can be seen in ways that are repeated as hills, valleys, plains .. To sort the reliefs used two criteria: C laificacion description of the forms of relief: They are classified by their appearance C LASSIFICATION interpretation of landforms: Based on the process that caused the landforms (explains how to echo)


There are two types of crust: oceanic-crust: Composed primarily of basalt, is usually covered by water. “Continental crust: Formed by granite and metamorphic rocks, is thicker and denser than the oceanic.


Weathering: disintegration of the rocks that occur in several ways: No mechanical weathering: rocks are broken Due to various tensions: “Termoclastica: heated, it expands more outside than inside and burst. -Decompression: When the stones are broken because they have different pressures to which they were created. No chemical weathering: Consists of the disintegration of rocks Due to the chemical alteration of its minerals, occurs by:-Oxidation: oxygen reacts with some minerals. “Dissolution: affects minerals that dissolve in water. “Carbonation: when a reaction occurs. -Hydrolysis: alteration of minerals react with water. ยบ Weathering biochemistry: breakage or chemical alteration Due to living beings.

EROSION: The evacuation of material by geological agents, produce several effects: “Evacuation of debris: fragments are produced by rock weathering and accumulated to the foot of the escarpments. -Modeladocarstico on Earth’s surface: clasts are started producing landforms. “Peneplanation: large, flat surfaces are produced by geologic agents. “Redistribution of the mass of the continents: The way weight loss in mountainous areas and an increase in the lower parts of the continent.

SEDIMENTATION: Accumulation of material transported by a geological agent. Can be transported or not depends on: “Areas where removal process: the accumulated sediment to be transported back-Zones in the process of Sag sediments to be transported back

Accumulation of sediment: can be produced by two processes: “Settling: clasts go to the bottom of the medium in which they occur. -Accretion kinetics: the clasts face and accumulate each other.

TRANSPORT parameters characterizing the

“The Power: capaidad of an agent to mobilize geological sediments. “The selection of clasts: geological agents with different energies have different size clasts. “The maturation of the sediments: Form in combi occurring composition, size and shape.

Forms of transportation: “In contact with the bottom. “Without touching the bottom.

BASINS and sedimentary environments

The sedimentary basins are large areas of the earth’s surface showing subsidence or sinking.

Types of sedimentary environments: – continental sedimentary NVIRONMENT: river floods, glaciers, wind farms, karst. Marine sedimentary environments: Coastal, recifales, continental shelves, continental slopes, turbidites. Transition sedimentary environments: beaches, deltas and estuaries.


The rivers originate three forms of relief: V-Valleys: They occur when the river is strong and is deeply embedded in the ground. – Flat-bottomed valleys: It is when you have little strength and meandering. “Peneplane: when the river is extended to the valley and the rivers join each other.

When the river is strong and fit can be “Cerros Witness: isolated residual reliefs. -Terrazas: Relieves k have stepped incision and Extensionof the valley.

TORRENTS AND WATER WILD (Modeling torrents)

Streams and rivers are cuers have water flow only when heavy rains ay. The wild waters are channeled waters that run through the field after a heavy rain.

Originate: “Gully: Deep furrows in the soil. -Canyons: Deep V-shaped valleys in areas of high pediente. -Ramblas: Channels you stay dry cleaner for years.

Transport torrential geological agent is strong, fast, and there is little selective maturation of the sediment.

The sedimentary deposits originated can be differentiated by their size: “alluvial fans: small accumulations, with high gradient produced by small rivers.” Alluvial fans: large accumulations. “Pedimentos: Result of the union of several alluvial fans.

WIND (Modeling wind power)

Modeling is the key player in the warm deserts, its erosive capacity is small. In the desert wind erosion can provocasdos: “Deflation: The wind blows away the materials smaller and large leaves forming a stony desert called reg.” Abrasion Wind: The sand-laden wind occurs on the surface sanding.

Transporting and sedimentation Wind: Produces accumulations of dust and sand very characteristic: “loess deposits: accumulations of windblown dust.” Dune: accumulations of sand crescent shaped.

MARINE WATERS (Modeling coastal)

Erosion processes are conducted two “Retreat of the cliff: the waves below socaban rock until the block collapses, the stones produced by the collapse are called abrasion platform.” Grinding and washing materials: The rocks are crumbling fragments from and carried into the sea leaving the coast sand and gravel.

Transport and sedimentation orginan coast: Beaches and raffles and arrows (sand ridges perpendicular or parallel to the coast)

THE GLACIERS (Modelling glacier)

This agent consists of geological masses of ice called glaciers, which flow slowly under their weight. The glacier tongues produce forms erosive features:-v Valleys: Valleys wide and deep, rounded. Sobreecabacion-Zones: cavities produced by the ice flow.

Las tillites are accumulations of clasts produced by glaciers and moraines.


This agent is formed by geological suerficiales underground waters capable of causing two dissolving rocks eroded shapes “superficial erosive forms: They are created by dissolution or collapse.” Underground erosive forms: as the galleries (tunnels leveled), pits (vertical lines) rooms (chambers of irregular shape)

The sedimentation occurs in two forms:-Accumulation of clay softening and precipitation of soluble salts.


-Climate: Depending on the weather may dominate certain geological agents or not. “Tectonic and structural tectonics strongly conditions the geological agents acting and modeling.” Lithology: The rock on which agents act influences geological modeling. – Anthropogenic: Human activity changes the modeling of the relief or limiting the action of geological agents.