Future Crimin

The Future of Criminology I:
“Integrating Theories”
Criminology: theoretical diversity
Structural Theories
– Characteristics of the environment or social group in which individuals live
individual theories
– Characteristics of the individual (psychological or biological)
Both theories are
integrated and generated:
The basic object of criminological theories is to establish the factors associated
Before any criminal phenomenon to be analyzed empirically
which of the factors identified by the various theories explaining the phenomenon
in question
Theoretical Integration
No means that theories are not enough explored independently
plurifactorial explain the nature of the crime.
n So, take those parts of each theory that are most promising and try to
form a new theory of them all.
Theoretical Integration: 1. Elliott DS Theory
n Integration of theories of social control, frustration and learning.
n is a natural sequential model:
1. Inadequate socialization: weak social controls. Problems of socialization in the family and frustration.
2. Relationship with delinquent peer groups: once the ties with society are weak the person is associated with people who favor the commission of criminal acts (deviant groups)
3. Because of this: there are weak links with groups and conventional standards and strong ties to groups and deviant norms.
Theoretical Integration: 2. Agnew’s General Theory
n A
criminological theory should include:
1. List of all the causes of crime.
2. Understanding how these causes increase the probability of committing a crime.
3. How are these causes together.
4. Cause long until these have an impact on crime and how.
5. Explains the concentration of crime in young men.
No theory should include these variables but be
simple enough to be verified empirically.
n The offense is likely to occur when
impediments to commit a crime are low and high motivation.
n There are a number of
variables that are influencing whether or motivations impediments.
Limitations: This is a wall (social) located between the individual and the crime.
1. External control: family, friends, to detect and punish criminal behavior.
2. Internal control of individual morality.
Motivation: The events that promote the commission of crimes.
1. Drag: “learning the offense”; beliefs favorable to crime, criminals successful models.
2. Push “frustration” were prevented from achieving desired goals.
n There are
five (5) groups of relevant variables should affect either the constraints or to motivation:
1. Personal traits.
2. Family variables.
3. School variables.
4. Variables relating to peers.
5. Variables related to work.
6. External factors of environmental nature
1. Personal traits:
– Impulsivity,
– Problems of attention,
– Low learning through punishment,
– Irritability,
– Insensitivity to others,
– Poor social skills in conflict resolution,
– Belief in favor of committing crimes.
2. Family Variables:
– Links with parents negative,
– Family conflict,
– Child Abuse
– Poor supervision,
– Parents, brothers or even criminals.
– Poor social support.
– Singleness and negative relationship with the couple.
3. School variables:
– Poor school performance
– Links negative school
– Some time spent studying at home,
– Negative treatment by teachers,
– Educational and employment goals modest.
4. Variables relating to peers:
– Networking with peers / friends offenders,
– Membership of a young band,
– Spend much time unsupervised
– Abuse by peers,
– Be victims of crime.
5. Variables related to work:
– Poor performance at work,
– Long-term unemployment.

6. External environmental in nature:
– In each of the areas earlier life (family, work, school), people are subject to certain conditions:
– Age, sex, race, socioeconomic status.
All these variables influence the crime because they affect the constraints and motivations.
1. Directly: raises for itself the likelihood of delinquency (eg low self-control).
Indirectly: influencing variables affect individual or social

1. Indirectly: influencing variables affect individual or social (eg low intelligence affects school performance and thus increases the likelihood of offending).
No variables have the following features:
1. Not all have the same influence (meaning large, moderate, modest).
2. The influence depends on varying stages of life (childhood, adolescence, adulthood), “Criminology of the lifetime.
3. They are interrelated:
Web spider crime (many negative variables)
– Chronic Offender
No Value “nonlinear” between causes and increase in crime:
– A
rise in the causes of crime is always an increased chance of committing a crime (albeit very slight).
– A rise in one of the causes of crime (which are variables)
are not following an increase in the crime or the likelihood of the same magnitude but this can vary.
No theory collaborate in pursuing crime prevention:
– The programs will be most effective the more effect on their spheres of life issues.
– The
best strategy for intervention programs areinvolving improvements in the areas of life of individuals and offenders: family, work, people relating, self-control, etc..
Criminology Development
No Source: the deep interest in the age factor and the curve of age.
n is a broad stream which states that
“the factors relevant to the crime are different for different ages of the people.”
No criteria are followed as “stage of life” of offenders: people experience along new life experiences and biological processes typical of each stage: it is proposed dynamic (as opposed to the static that causes understands that there is equal Crime in all stages of life).
n Emphasis is placed on longitudinal studies: measurements are conducted with individuals at different times of his life.
No interest: the study of the lives of offenders or criminal careers.
n In general theories is sympathetic to the approach of
“risk factors” discussed factors that increase the statistical risk that offending.
No call attention to that
most offenders who leave their criminal career when adolescence ends.
No Crime prevention:
1. These theories are of great interest in crime prevention.
2. The idea is to interfere in the processes along different stages of life leads to crime.
3. Prevention efforts must begin early in life of people and focus on the greatest number of risk factors.
No Terrie Moffitt’s theory (University of Southern California):
1. Classify offenders:
a. Whose criminal activity is limited to adolescence.
b. Persistent Offenders: over a lifetime.
2. The causes of crime in both cases are different.
n The causes of crime in both cases are different:
a. Whose criminal activity is limited to adolescence: the cause is mimicry, ie copy, imitate behavior that provides valuable resources (adult status, eg.)

b. Offenders throughout the life of nature cause is influencing neuropsychological temperament, behavioral development, but also environmental factors (barrrio, family, school) that may worsen. Over time the negative consequences that accumulate.
c. Evaluation:
In a study by Moffitt found that offenders who limited their illegal activity in adolescence closely resembled the age of 32 who had never sinned.