French Revolution and Its Impact on Europe

Universal suffrage

Universal suffrage: Electoral system in which all persons of legal age have the right to vote, whatever their sex or condition. Reign of Terror – It was a period of change centered on the rise of the French Revolution, which lasted from 1793 to 1794 and was generally led by Robespierre. National convention: The National Convention was the main institution of the First French Republic, it was an assembly that mixed the executive and legislative powers. Congress of Vienna: The Congress of Vienna was an international meeting held in the Austrian capital, convened with the aim of reestablishing the borders of Europe after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte and reorganizing the political ideologies of the Old Regime.

The causes of the French Revolution are

The causes of the French Revolution are: ABSOLUTISM: The absolute monarchs did not share power neither with lawyers nor with parliament THE STATES OF THE REALM- SOCIETY: The society was divided into the first state the clergy, the second state the nobility and the third state the peasants who are the majority of the population so when the general states were convened the people only counted with one vote and they lost. ORGANIZATION AND THE SEIGNEURIAL SYSTEM: Feudal method of land ownership and organization Peasant labor THE KING LOUIS XIV AND HIS POLICY – SEVEN YEARS WAR and LOUIS XVI France had an absolute monarchy with a king who refused to govern Louis XVI and who was influenced by his wife. THE ENLIGHTENMENT: New ideas about society and government arose from enlightenment AMERICAN REVOLUTION: France supported America against Great Britain and that awakened in them the revolutionary ideals no taxation without representation. FINANTIAL CRISIS: Tax reform is needed since the third state was unhappy with having to pay and the nobles refused to do so, while the government continued to borrow thanks to the war and the queen. Trade became extremely expensive and the economy began to be disastrous

Revolución: The first is the constitutional monarchy (1789-1792) in which the bourgeoisie tried to reach an agreement with the nobles and the clergy to impose a parliamentary monarchy; For this, the national assembly: approved the declaration of the rights of man and the citizen and a constitution based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality was drafted, although the king reserved the right of veto. A legislative assembly was formed which drafted laws to implement liberalism. A new army was also created to defend the Revolution and finally to solve the financial crisis, the property of the Church was expropriated and sold and thus the Church was separated from the state. The nobles tried to re-impose absolutism but the Austrian army invaded France and Louis XVI tried to flee but was caught 

The defeat of Napoleon, the impossibility of conquering Russia and submitting Spain marked the decline of the Napoleonic Empire, the imperial armies were definitively defeated at Waterloo by the United Kingdom and Prussia (1815).
Napoleon was defeated because the Napoleonic conquests generated a double reaction in the countries occupied by the French armies, on the one hand, the abolition of absolute monarchies and the suppression of feudal rights aroused the sympathies of liberals from all over Europe and on the other hand , the invasion of a foreign army, the indiscriminate violence of its soldiers and submission to the interests of France generated a strong anti-French sentiment among the population.

Liberalism: The origins are the ideas of the Enlightenment (War of Independence of the United States and French Revolution), its objective was the emphasis on individual freedoms and rights, the representation reserved the interest of the bourgeoisie. Liberalism wants the separation of powers, constitutional monarchy, national sovereignty, limited suffrage, and freedom of association, religion, and the press.ç

The French Revolution gave us the foundations of democracy: the organization of states and the ways of doing politics in most western democratic countries, the consideration of people as citizens with rights recognized by the state, the right of citizens to vote for their representatives, the constitution as a fundamental law, equality before the law and independent justice, and the administrative organization of the state in departments and town halls, political life and the press, political life through political parties had antecedents in the clubs created during the revolution, defended ideas and proposals, were grouped in societies to participate in politics, the political press was born out of the interest of contrasting the opinions of different groups and discussing them, the liberation of the economy, the revolution and Napoleonic laws, guilds were abolished, the liberal business and contracting was decreed, Workers’ associations were banned, internal merchandise customs were eliminated and trade, education and public culture were hindered, the separation of church and state, the state must be secular, teaching must not be in the hands of the church, an equal and compulsory education, the first public schools were created, art was in private collections.

The Directory: the moderate bourgeoisie took back control of the revolution and it entered its third and final phase. jacobin laws were cancelled and exiles from the reign of terror were encouraged to return. a new constitution 1795 granted executive power to a collegial government, known as the directory and restored census suffrage

sans-culottes: the betrayal by the king and the military invasion led to the revolt by the common people (sans-culottes). on 10 august 1792, they stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. A republic was declared and the second phase of the Revolution began.

Huida a Varenes: a constitutional monarchy was established in 1791 but the royal family and the privileged classes didn´t accept the changes and asked absolute monarchies in europe to help restore absolutism. the austrian army invaded France and Luis XVI fled to Paris but he was arrested and the austrian army entered France and reached Paris

Santa alianza: was at the initiative of Alexander I of Russia, between Austria, Russia and Prussia, on September 26, 1815 in Paris, after the Battle of Waterloo. The three monarchs invoked Christian principles, with the aim of containing the liberalism and secularism that had been implanted in Europe as a result of the French Revolution. In their pact they pledged to intervene where necessary to defend monarchical legitimacy and the principles of absolutism and stifle any revolutionary movement.

The restoration: it was a return to the political system of the Ancient Regime after the Napoleon defeat in 1815.

-the congress of vienna: the leaders of various european estates met at the congress of vienna measures that they adopted: the restoration of absolute monarchy and reshape European borders

-two alliances were formed to enforce the agreements of the congress of vienna: the holy alliance (austria, rusia and prussia) and the quadruple alliance (austria, russia, prusia and great britain)





give up-rendirse/take risks-cometer fallos 

go wrong-equivocarse/turn back-volver







advisor-tutor/lead to-conducir a












leading role-papel principal/setting-ajuste

low-budget film-bajo presupuesto/soundtrack-banda sonora

main character-protagonista/special effects-efectos especials

minor character-personaje secundario/spoiler-spoiler


El sistema informático es el encargado de recoger y procesar los datos y de transmitir la información recibe el nombre de sistema informático.

La informática es el conjunto de técnicas y conocimientos necesarios para el tratamiento automático de la información mediante el ordenador.

Hardware: Es la parte física del ordenador. Está formado por los componentes que integran el ordenador(circuitos electrónicos, cables, monitor, teclado, impresora, etc.).

Software Es la parte lógica del ordenador. Son los programas, es decir, las instrucciones que hacen posible el funcionamiento y uso del ordenador.

UC: Unidad de control y UAL: Unidad aritmético-lógica

Memoria ROM (Memoria de sólo lectura) Su contenido sólo se puede leer. Su contenido no se borra si apagamos el ordenador.

Memoria RAM (Memoria de acceso aleatorio) El contenido de esta memoria se puede modificar. Es una memoria de lectura y escritura. Su contenido se pierde cuando se desconecta el ordenador.

Los periféricos son aquellas unidades o dispositivos a través de los cuales el ordenador se comunican con el exterior

Periféricos de entrada: teclado, ratón, joystick, escáner, etc. Periféricos de salida: monitor, impresora, etc. Periféricos de entrada/salida: módem, pantalla táctil, impresora multifunción, etc. Dispositivos de almacenamiento: disco duro, disco flexible, CD ROM

Tipos de software: Software del sistema (Windows, Linux)  . Lenguajes de programación(Python, Visual Basic ). Software de aplicación(Procesadores de texto, hojas de cálculo).

La placa base, es el elemento principal de todo computador, al que se conectan todos los demás dispositivos.



develop a theory-desarrollar una teoria/reveal-revelar


get to the bottom of-llegar al fondo/turn out-resultar

look into-estudiar/vanish-desaparecer