Morality is the practice of conduct in living. We have inherited the wrong/right from culture,  family… In moral there is no justification or reason, you just try to follow what is considered right to follow.

Even in the same society, we all have different morals (christian morals, buddismm…), and many people obey the rules from those who claim moral authority without their own judgement or wonder. That leads in  living an unexamined life (socrates) = if we wondered those moral rules, we might think they are not right, but as we just follow them without wondering, we live our life based on other people’s ideals.

Moral Conscience ;The ability to judge other people’s / our actions. Some people think that an action is wrong due to their emotions, other people believe that the judgement of this is not their moral, but the reason. Others, besides, trust their values and think that’s wrong  anything that does not follow their values. (Child pornography is bad for our emotions, not wearing face masks for reason, and letting a friend down for our values)

 Moral Development ;Moral develops with the time’s pass, according to Heinz, there are 3 stages of moral development:

  • Pre-conventional stage: doing what benefits you most, and focusing the direct consequences of your actions on yourself (stealing is wrong because of punishment // if no one is watching, stealing is right since there is no punishment and you win money). In this stage, you don’t realise what is good or bad, you just think about the result that will happen and you just act on your benefit

  • Conventional stage: Doing what society thinks you should do, and acting according to that. In our culture, something is considered to be good or bad, including that perspective in your behaviour is part of this stage.  (I would break the law to save u, if no, my neighbours will think I am selfish) 

  • Post-conventional being able to know what is right/wrong globally and internationally, thinking there are some practices that are wrong in the whole world and some laws that are not fair not only in that country but in the whole world. 

*Animals and Ethics

Ethics is the branch of philosophy that can be studied at school based on reason which deals with moral principles (good or bad). What ought I to do? Ethics is a philosophical reflection on morals that tries to explain morality providing justification and explanations. Ethics provide us tools to make good decisions. Our values or principles can also influence this. It is a process of reflection in which people’s opinions are shaped by their values, principles and purpose. They are conscious reflections.                     

Ethical decisions can be influenced by: 

1-Values things we hold to be good, what we care most about (friends, money…) when we care about two values and have to choose one: dilemma. 

2-Principles we don’t only have to know what is good, but what is right. Principles determine the acceptable ways of getting what we value (be true to your word, never lie…) Principles, take the value and apply them to their actions 

3-Purpose When we don’t know whether to choose a value or a principle (dilemma), purpose helps us to orient our judgement (to solve the dilemma).



Applied Ethics

Inside ethics, we have a lot of small groups that determine how certain people ought to act or behave. For example, inside ethics, we have teacher ethics which determines how teachers should behave. In case a teacher disobeyed these “behaviour rules”, the action would not be ethically correct. However, a teacher can have a different opinion that does not correspond the applied ethics, for example, a teacher might think hitting students is correct (moral) even if ethically is not (ethics) and he would punished for his action (law) and this concludes that he has not the ability to do whatever he wants (low negative freedom). It takes different fields. There are some ethical principles connected with doctors,teachers… 

Ethical values

Are basic and fundamental beliefs that guide or motivate attitudes or actions. (if I find a wallet with money and a ID-card, there are to options, consider money as my principal value and take it with me, or put friendship as my major value and give it back to that person) We determines people’s values by analyzing their values

For stoicism, natural animals that live according to their instincts, that’s a natural animal. A natural human being is the one who lives with reason. What makes a human being natural, is reason. But, for animals, is the ability to live by their instincts (in circuses for examples. animals are not in naturality)

law and the court system

Are formal rules that govern how we behave as members of society, they specify what we must do and we mustn’t do; They are upheld and applied by the state and the court system, and their role is to create a basic enforceable standard of behaviour. The law can be just or unjust, plus, law might not be useful when you have to decide whether you should tell the truth of someone or not

Freedom is the most important condition of morals, ethics and law (why ?)

Collective freedom: the freedom u can get from other people (i am able, i have the freedom to go to bilbo, due to the buses that society provides me, i am able to do that/free to do that)

Individual freedom: my own freedom to decide what I want to do (can be affected by law, morality or ethics: I am not free to kill someone because of law)

2 types of freedom: Isaiah Berlin

Negative freedom: Is freedom from control by others, we cannot do what we want (we have to wear a mask, pay taxes, do things we might not want to, those things suppose a limit). We are not free to do many things because of society. Physical freedom is also negative, because we can not levitate for example, we are not able/free to fly. When other people limit our negative freedom means we are being forced not to do some things.

Positive freedom: The ability / the ways we have to guide our life or to decide how to live (after batx, we are free to choose our life, career…)  positive freedom is freedom to control oneself. To be positively free is to be one’s own master, acting rationally and choosing responsibly in line with one’s interests. 

Intelectualism based on reason, teaching children what they should do, if people know what to do at every moment, they will do it (socrates supported this ethical theorie) Bad people are stupid people, they cannot differe wright and wrong. 

Emotivism We know that something is wright or wrong because of the emotions that that causes on us (genital mutilation: we dont need to be reasoning if thats good/wrong, we know it immediatly because we feel it, we can make difference between w/w due to the emotions that that causes on us

Relativism connecting with invididuals, something is good/wrong according to the own invididual. The way that says that there are not universal principles. What is good/bad goes according to the own invididual

Universalism There are some universal principles that are unviersal and should be accepted by anyone (human rights)