1. Relevant market: * How can a company evaluate the potential of a market – seen from the view of offering company? – Number of demanders. – Maximum sales potential (turnover) in the market. – Number of competitors. – Who are the Main-competitors & how big are their market shares. – How do the competitors and customers respond to the changes of my marketing instruments?Do you expect consequences of anti-competition laws? * Identify relevant market:  – Spatial: how far can and will you deliver your products.Time: when do you want to deliver?Factual: who are the competitors?à Offer- and Product related or Buyer-related and related to its use. * Delimiters of the relevant market – Offer/Product related: Which competitor products can be exchanged by my products? – Physical/technical similarity – RM = same substances (i.e. wood furniture) – RM = same processing (milling products). – Positive Cross-price elasticities: – RM = all products with high cross-price elasticity: Price-increase of good-A causes a demand-increase of good-B (butter / margarine) – Economic plans: – RM = Competitors that are subjectively considered as such and hence their potential reactions are included in the own sales planning (car models of the same category) – Functional similarity: – RM = Products for the same basic need (thirst: water, fruit juice, Cola…). * Delimiters of the relevant market – Demand point of view:Which products satisfy the needs of the buyer? – Subjectively exchangeable: -Video games on a PC or PlayStation- Exchangeable in its use in certain situations: listen music over Handy or iPod- Real purchase behaviour approaches to identify exchangeable products: -The real substitution behaviour is identified by customer panels. – The question about the “why” is usually not answered (black-box)– Customer types: – End user: Individuals for personal consumption. – Industrial goods: raw materials or capital goods. – Trading markets: goods for resale without additional treatment. – Public institutions: schools, hospitals, etc. – State demand: infrastructure, military etc. – International markets: other countries and their consumers.

2. Pestle Analysis: *Internal and External factors for a Business Development: For a clean analysis and the following strategic planning you must distinguish internal and external factors: – Internal factors (Strength or Weakness):The considered factor develops differently compared to competitor companies. The difference is due to the company itself. e.g.: Due to our excellent reputation for quality and customer service our sales are growing above average compared to the competition à Strength.– External factors (Chance or Risk): The considered factor affects all companies in the sector in a similar way.e.g.: Demand for individual mobility promotes our sales of cars in China à Chance. * What factors should be considered in the “Opportunity/Risk analysis? The only factor which cannot be influenced by the company itself is the Environmental Analysis. So we classify opportunities and risks for the company depending on the strengths and weaknesses. So a guideline for a structured analysis is:– Political: – Global political trends (East-West, North-South, risk of local/international conflicts…).- Political developments in the relevant countries.- Change of government party and relation to politicians.– Economical: – Development trends of national income in the relevant countries– Development of international trade (Trade, economic integration, protectionism)– Tendencies in development of the balance of payments– Development of Exchange Rates and expected Inflation– Development of capital markets– Development of employment– Expected Investment expenditure– Expected Macro-Economic fluctuations (characteristics and frequency)– Development of relevant sectors of the economy. – Social: – Population development in the relevant countries (important groups, migration…). – Social-psychological currents (work mentality, propensity to save, leisure behaviour, automation, relevant materials and products).– Technological: – Production technology (trends in the process technology, innovation, automation…). – The speed of product innovation. – Substitution technologies (possible innovations, development of costs). – Recycling technology.– Legal: – Trends in economic policy (tax, compliance, competition laws).- Trends in social legislation, labour law.- Importance, freedom and influence of trade unions.– Ecological:It refers to trends in the protection of environment (environmental awareness, environmental impact and environmental legislation). Availability of Energy, Raw material and recycling material are also part of this point.

3. Management models:* Partial Models:specific elements of the Management process brought to the foreground. – Management by Exception: management only in exceptional situations.Management by Delegation: management by transfer of tasks. – Management by Decision Rules: default decision rules are given. – Management by Results: management by control of results. * Total Models:Inclusion of all elements of the Management process. – St.Gallener Leadership Model: overall integrating model. – Harzburger Leadership Model: management with autonomous employees. – 7-S-Model: Mc.Kinsey Model, hard and soft factors. – Management by objectives: – Management and employees agree jointly on targets. – Employee has discretion – no specific order for the route to achieve his targets. – This shall motivate the employee and boost his creativity. – Leadership activity is mainly the agreement of targets and check of achievement. – Revolving operation: re-defining goals… after reaching the previous target, when there are problems to achieve the objectives and when changing environmental situations. *Process: 1) General business objectives 2) Adjustment of the Organizational Structure. 3a) Vision supervisor 3b) Vision employees. 4) Jointly agreed objectives. 5) Fee-back by Mile-stone results. 5a) New impulses. 5b) Singling out unsuitable targets. 6) Regular comparison actual vs. target 7) If necessary adaptation work behaviour.