Chapters 4,5 7, 8, 10, 11

1. What is considered objective information.

 Is the one that is measurable or verifiable in some way. Might be the patients pulse rate. A sign is objective information

2. What is a pertinent negative.

 Signs or symptoms that might be expected, based on the chief complaint, but the ptient denies having. 

3. How do you document a patient’s chief complaint.

 Should be in the patient’s own words or in the words of a bystander, if the patient is unresponsive.

4. How to document information given to you by someone other than the patient.

 Should be in their own words

5. What section of the SOAP represents treatment you have provided.


6. What is an open-ended question.

 Questions that allow the patient to give a detailed

7. What role does the FCC play in EMS.

 Assign radio call signs, aproves equipment for use, assign radio frequencies, and monitors field operations.

8. Why are all EMS radios recorded.

 Limit interference with emergency radio broadcasts and to bar the use of obscenity and profanity in broadcasts.

9. Advantages of using closed-ended questions.

 Questions that call for specific information from the patient.

10. Be able to define Supine/Prone and Medial/Lateral when describing a patient’s position.

Supine: the patient is lying face up on his back.

Prone: the patient lyinf face down on his stomach.

11. Define lateral recumbent position.

 The patient is lying on his left or right side

12. Where is smooth or involuntary muscle found in the body.

 In thw walls of tubelike organs, ducts, the respiratory tract, and blood vessels and forms much of the walls of the intestines and urinary system.

13. What are the basic functions of the respiratory system.

Respiration, Ventilation, Oxygenation, buffer to maintain acid-base balance.

14. Mechanics of ventilation.

 Is the mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs.

15. Define distal and proximal in relation to two named body parts.

Proximal: Closest to the center of the body.

Distal: Away from the center of the body

16. How does the body remove carbon dioxide.

 As the blood flows through the lungs, excess carbon dioxide passes out of the blood and into the alveoli by diffusion. It is then removed from the lungs when we exhale

17. Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

 Aerobic metabolism: Is the breakdown of molecules such as glucose through a series of reactions that produce energy within the cells in the presence of oxygen

Anaerobic metabolism: is the breakdown of molecules in the cells without the presence of oxygen.

18. Byproduct of anaerobic metabolism.

 Include heat, carbon dioxide, and water.

19. What role do oxygen and glucose play in metabolism.

 The energy production, cellular function and the celular damage.

20. What does FiO2 represent.

 The fractions of inspired oxygen.

21. Hypoxic drive.

The body uses oxygen chemoreceptors instead of carbon dioxide receptors to regulate the respiratory system.

22. How to manage a patient with Minute Ventilation issues.

 One way to compensate minute ventilation is to increase the ventilatory rate. If the patient just described increases his ventilatory rate to 28 breaths/minute.

23. What is the hypercapnic drive.

 A person’s rate and depth of breathing are regulated primarily by the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.

24. Respiratory causes of acidosis.

 occurs when too much CO2 builds up in the body.

Asthma, obesity, overuse of alcohol.

25. What controls the respiratory system.

 Respiration, ventilation, oxygenation, serving as buffer

26. Indications for using the head-tilt chin lift airway maneuver.

 Should be used for opening the airway in a patient who has no suspected spinal injury.

27. How to suction a patient that has inadequate respirations.

28. Indications for using the jaw-thrust airway maneuver.

 If a spinal injury is suspected, the patient’s head and neck must be brought into and maintaned in a neutral, in-line position.

29. Define adequate ventilations while using a BVM.

 Is a manual resuscitator used to provide positive pressure ventilation

30. Correct technique for insertion of an Oral Pharyngeal Airway (OPA)

 1. Select proper size airway.

  1. Open the patients mouth using the crossed finger tecnique.
  2. Advance until the flat flange at the top of the airway rests on the patients front teeth.

31. Contraindications of using an OPA.

 It may cause vomiting or spasm of the vocal cords. If the devices is too long, it can push the epiglottis over the opening to the larynx.

32. How to set up and deliver O2 using a Non-Rebreather Mask (NRB)

  1. Explain the patient that you are going to apply oxygen through a mask
  2. Select the appropiate-sizes mask.
  3. Once the reservoir is completely inflated, fit the mask to the patient’s face.
  4. Constantly monitor the reservoir bag to ensure that it remains filled during inhalation.

33. Most common airway obstruction.

 The tongue.

34. Define respiration vs. ventilation.

 Respiration:refers to the gas exchange process that occurs between alveoli or cells and the capillaries, or the utilization of glucose and oxygen during normal metabolism within the cells

Ventilation: the passage of air into and put the lungs.

35. Indications for suctioning.

 It is necessary to remove any objects, or fluid crom the mouth and airway since they can cause and obstruction.

36. How to correctly count respirations.

 Counting the chest rises of the ptients

37. What does Jaundice represent.

 A yellow tint to the skin or eyes caused by an excess of bilirubin, a substance created when red blood cells break down.

38. What artery is used when obtaining a blood pressure.


39. Differentiate between systolic and diastolic when discussing blood pressures.

 The top number is the systolic, which is the amount of pressure exerted during the contraction and ejection of blood.

Diastolic is the bottom number, is the amount of prrssure on the artery walls while the ventricle is at rest or not contracting.

40. Define the mnemonic SAMPLE.

 Medical history of the patient that you get by asking questions of the patient, family and bystanders

41. What constitutes baseline vitals.

  1. Respiration
  2. Pulse
  3. Skin
  4. Pupils
  5. Blood pressure
  6. Pulse oximetry

42. Define tachycardia by age group.

 In adult is a heart rate greater than 100bpm.

43. Why is the mnemonic OPQRST used.

 Is form assesing the patient chief complaint or major symptoms, such as pain, that the patient can tell you about it.

44. Differentiate between a central pulse and a peripheral pulse.

 Central: A pulse recorded near the origin of the carotid or subclavian arteries.

Peropheral: A pulse recorded in the arteries (radial or pedal) in the distal portion of the limbs.