Exam II

Articles of Confederation is that it provided enough of a structure for the nation to survive during those eight years, while the American people learned about the requirements to run an effective national government. Articles of Confederation failed because they were crafted to keep the national government as weak as possible: No central leadership (executive branch), Congress had no power to enforce its laws, Congress had no power to tax. Congress had no power to regulate trade.No national court system (judicial branch), Changes to the Articles required unanimous.John Dickinson led the committee that wrote the AOC. Northwest ordinance of 1787-This enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states. The Land Ordinance of 1785 was a very important law that was developed by the government while the Articles of Confederation was our plan of government. This law helped to organize the sale of western lands.The land was to be subdivided according to a rectangular grid system. The basic unit of the land grant was the township, which was a square area measuring six miles on each side. Newburgh Conspiracy– An attempt to obtain taxation authority for the Treasury that convinced the army officers stationed in Newburgh to lie and say that they would mutiny unless they got a raise. Shays rebellion-uprising in western Massachusetts in opposition to high taxes and stringent economic conditions. Armed bands forced the closing of several courts to prevent the execution of foreclosures and debt processes. Demands: Laws to protect farmers, Dissolving the court of common appeals, Reduction of taxes, Shay and his men marched into Springfield, Massachusetts to seize a federal arsenal, Militia under General Benjamin Lincoln stopped them, Most of the men were pardoned a year later, Forced political leaders to make laws that could effectively govern the nation. Barbary Pirates– Late 1700s nations paid tribute to the pirates of North Africa to ensure merchant shipping without attacks, Pirates had been in the area since the Crusades:  attacked ports, captured people for slavery and looted merchant ships, March 1786 Thomas Jefferson, ambassador to France and John Adams, ambassador to Great Britain met with a ruler in Tripoli to settle the issue, the U.S. paid tribute until 1800 to free captured Americans, First Barbary War 1801-1805:  Navy ship Philadelphia sent to Tripoli and was captured, LT Stephen Decatur sailed into Tripoli on a captured ship to recapture Philadelphia and succeeded, The Northwest Indian War, also known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle’s War, and by other names, was a war between the United States and the Western Confederacy, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory. F vs AF -Those who supported the Constitution and a stronger national republic were known as Federalists. Those who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in favor of small localized government were known as Anti-Federalists. Federalists feared rebellion and disorder without a strong government while Antifederalists feared government over disorder and the concentration of power in the national government.The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia met between May and September of 1787 to address the problems of the weak central government that existed under the Articles of Confederation.The major debates were over-representation in Congress, the powers of the president, how to elect the president (Electoral College), slave trade, and a bill of rights.James Madison is known as the Father of the Constitution because of his pivotal role in the document’s drafting as well as its ratification. Madison also drafted the first 10 amendments — the Bill of Rights Influence of Locke: Social Contract– When Locke referred to the “state of nature,” he meant that people have a natural state of independence, and they should be free “to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature.” Locke argued that people are thus not royal subjects, but to secure their property rights, people willingly give over their right to a central authority to judge whether a person is going against the laws of nature and needed to be punished.Influence of Montesquieu: separation of powers-The Founding Fathers used his views when writing the Constitution.He described the separation of political power among a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary.Hume’s importance of Law– Hume thinks certain systems of law will accomplish their purpose, of coordinating people’s behavior for the benefit of all, better than others. He introduces two concepts, which I call generality and convenience, to designate those features of the law that allow it to best accomplish its purpose.The Great (Connecticut)Compromise was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.States with larger populations wanted congressional representation based on population, while smaller states demanded equal representation.Three-Fifths Compromise propelling slavery to the forefront of the argument. … All of the states, save for New Hampshire and Rhode Island, agreed to the counting of three out of five slaves toward each state’s population.Only the Southern states had large numbers of slaves. Counting them as part of the population would greatly increase the South’s political power, but it would also mean paying higher taxes. This was a price the Southern states were willing to pay. … Northern states disagreed.Federalist Papers, is a series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison between October 1787 and May 1788, was to convince New Yorkers to send to the Constitutional Convention delegates who would vote to ratify the Constitution, fully two-thirds of New York’s delegates initially opposed ratification. The Federalist Papers were in support of the constitution being ratified and were meant to establish a Federal government.Bill of Rights, were designed to protect the basic rights of U.S. citizens, To prevent the federal government from assuming excessive power, those who opposed the Constitution, who were known as Anti-Federalists, demanded a Bill of Rights, specifically designed to protect individual liberties.Federalists:  constructive interpretation (end justifies the means)Federalist Party Hamilton’s view: strong central government. A loose interpretation of the constitution.Anti-Federalists: strict interpretation, preferred a weak central government because they equated a strong government with British tyranny. Others wanted to encourage democracy and feared a strong government that would be dominated by the wealthy. They felt that the states were giving up too much power to the new federal government. Washington’s Presidency –  Judiciary act of 1789- established the supreme court and said decisions of the supreme court would be final –The tariff act of 1789– levied a 50¢ per ton duty on goods imported by foreign ships; American-owned vessels were charged 6¢ per ton -dispute between Hamilton and Madison, Hamilton proposed to pay off the new bonds with revenue from a new tariff on imports. Madison turned him down saying the federal control of debt would put too much power in the national government  –Hamilton’s Reports to Congress – 1st Report on Public Credit – paying debt at face value and paying the war debts of the states (payment in full for all government debts as a foundation for government credit)- 2nd Report on Public Credit: an excise tax on liquor – Report on National Bank & Mint – 4/5th private money – Report on Manufactures –The compromise of 1790 is where Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton had a meeting and Hamilton won the decision of the national government to take over and pay the state debts, and Jefferson and Madison obtained the national capital for the south The policy of Neutrality– issued by Washinton on April 22, 1793, to stay neutral in France’s and Great Britain’s conflict. It stopped American assistance during the war  -Edmond-Charles Genet came to America to have the Americans attack the British and Spanish in North America, countries at war with France at the time. This angered Washington -Jays Treaty, a treaty between America and Great Britain which averted war. Also known as ‘The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America’ –Pickneys Treaty– It defined the border between the United States and Spanish Florida and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River. –Battle of fallen timber– The Battle of Fallen Timbers was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between Native American tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy and their British allies, against the nascent United States for control of the Northwest Territory. This resulted in the Treaty of Greenville (American Victory) –Whiskey Rebellion- a tax protest beginning in 1791 and ending in 1794. Under the command of Major James McFarlane (American Rev. Veteran) Election of 1796- Adams as President and Jefferson as Vice President. Problems arose because they were from different parties. 

James Madison Presidency (1809-1813)    -Non-Intercourse Act of 1809,  The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 replaced the 1807 Embargo Act which had averted war with Britain and France but had backfired on the government by effectively strangling all American overseas trade. The purpose of the 1809 Non-Intercourse Act was to permit U.S. trade with nations other than France and Great Britain. The Non-Intercourse Act was signed into law on was signed on March 1, 1809  – two days before the end of Jefferson’s second term in office. Macon’s Bill #2  1810 –which became law in the United States on May 14, 1810, was intended to motivate Great Britain and France to stop seizing American ships, cargoes, and crews during the Napoleonic Wars. … The law lifted all embargoes with Britain and France for three months. was significant because it reopened trade with the rest of the world and provided that if either country, Britain or France, agreed to respect American shipping, it would cut off trade with the other country. Impressment of 10,000 Orders in Battle of Tippecanoe-US Army destroy Indian warriors, Chase them away from the battle of field. Then, Harrison orders the Indians village to be burned to the ground. Tecumseh and other tribes give up on their attacks on US settlers, Fought primarily over white expansion into Indian territory, the battle lasted approximately one day with the United States securing victory. The conflict at Tippecanoe was the primary catalyst for the War of 1812 between Britain and the United StatesWilliam Henry Harrison lead roughly 1,000 soldiers and militiamen to destroy the Shawnee village “Prophetstown,” named for Tecumseh’s brother Tenskwatawa, “the Prophet,” and designed by Tecumseh to be the heart of the new Native American confederacy. Tecumseh was a hero because during the War of 1812 he never gave up when the British did. … Tecumseh was the leader of a First Nations Confederacy and a military leader during the War of 1812. His confederacy was allied with the British, fighting against the Americans. The Prophet- He stood high above Prophetstown on a rock ledge now called Prophet’s Rock and riled his people into battle by singing war songs and chanting incantations that he promised would protect them from bullets. At dawn the next morning, Harrison’s men were surrounded by Tenskwatwa’s warriors. War Hawks Henry Clay (KY)John C. Calhoun (SC)– A nationalist at the outset of his political career, Calhoun was one of the leading War Hawks who maneuvered the unprepared United States into war with Great Britain in 1812. … A moderate during the nullification crisis of 1832-1833, Calhoun joined with Henry Clay in working out the Compromise Tariff. Battle of Frenchtown and Raisen River Massacre--was a series of conflicts in Michigan Territory that took place from January 18–23, 1813, during the War of 1812. … Dozens of wounded prisoners were murdered the next day in a massacre by the Native Americans.The battle of Frenchtown was a crushing British victory during the War of 1812. Detroit had been captured by the British in August 1812, and its recovery became the main aim of the American northwestern army. Overall command of that army was given to William Henry Harrison, the governor of Indiana. Battle of Lake Erie Oliver Hazard Perry (September 1813) –When Perry’s flagship, the Lawrence, was disabled, he transferred to the Niagara and won the battle within the next 15 minutes by sailing directly into the British line, firing broadside. In his official report of the British surrender, Perry wrote, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.The Battle of Lake Erie also allowed America to retake much of the Michigan Territory lost earlier in the war, to relieve Ohio and Indiana Territory from Native American raids, and to participate in the destruction of the Tecumseh Indian confederacy. Battle of the Thames Death of Tecumseh (October 1813)  The British, with about 600 regulars and 1,000 Indian allies under Tecumseh, the Shawnee intertribal leader, were greatly outnumbered and quickly defeated. Many British troops were captured and Tecumseh was killed, destroying his Indian alliance and breaking the Indian power in the Ohio and Indiana territories. William Henry Harrison pushed up the river Thames into Upper Canada and on October 4, 1813, won a victory notable for the death of Tecumseh, who was serving as a brigadier general in the British army. This battle resulted in no lasting occupation of Canada, but weakened and disheartened the Indians of the Northwest.Battle of Leipzig, also called Battle of the Nations, (Oct. 16–19, 1813), decisive defeat for Napoleon, resulting in the destruction of what was left of French power in Germany and Poland. … After his retreat from Russia in 1812, Napoleon mounted a new offensive in Germany in 1813 Battle of horseshoe bend- final battle of the Creek War of 1813-14. The victory at Horseshoe Bend brought Andrew Jackson national attention and helped elect him president in 1828. In treaty signed after the battle, known as the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Creeks ceded more than 21 million acres of land to the United States.,effectively ended Creek resistance to American advances into the southeast, opening up the Mississippi Territory for pioneer settlement.-red sticks was a part of the Creek Indian tribe who opposed American expansion, effectively ending the Creek War.The Burning of Washington was a British invasion of Washington City, the capital of the United States, during the War of 1812, and part of the Chesapeake Campaign,  invading British troops marched into Washington and set fire to the U.S. Capitol, the President’s Mansion, and other local landmarks.,- marks the only time since the American Revolutionary War that a foreign power has captured and occupied the capital of the United States. President James Madison, military officials, and his government fled the city in the wake of the British victory at Bladensburg .Battle of Plattsburg   (Lake Champlain) [September 1814] Commander Thomas McDonough- an American naval force won a decisive victory against a British fleet. The American victory helped lead to the conclusion of peace negotiations between Britain and the United States in Ghent, Belgium, later that year.British Failure at Baltimore (September 1814)-was a combined land and naval battle fought between the United Kingdom and the United States during the War of 1812. … The British launched a bombardment of Baltimore using their bomb ketchs, although this did not result in any American positions falling to them. Hartford Convention- was a meeting of New England Federalists held in Hartford Connecticut in the winter of 1814-15. These Federalist opposed the War of 1812 and held the convention to discuss and seek redress by Washington for their complaints and wrongs that the felt had been done.Treaty of Ghent (December 1814)-was signed by British and American representatives at Ghent, Belgium, ending the War of 1812. By terms of the treaty, all conquered territory was to be returned, and commissions were planned to settle the boundary of the United States and Canada. Battle of New Orleans (January 1815)-he United States achieved its greatest battlefield victory of the War of 1812 at New Orleans. The Battle of New Orleans thwarted a British effort to gain control of a critical American port and elevated Major General Andrew Jackson to national fame.Why was the Battle of New Orleans fought? The British hoped to seize New Orleans in an effort to expand into territory acquired by the United States through the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Second National Bank Charter- The essential function of the bank was to regulate the public credit issued by private banking institutions through the fiscal duties it performed for the U.S. Treasury, and to establish a sound and stable national currency. The federal deposits endowed the BUS with its regulatory capacity. Protective Tariff of 1816-also known as the Dallas Tariff, is notable as the first tariff passed by Congress with an explicit function of protecting U.S. manufactured items from overseas competition. … A tariff on manufactured goods, including war industry products, was deemed essential in the interests of national defense.John Adams Presidency (1797-1801)  XYZ Affair: diplomatic incident between French and United States diplomats that resulted in a limited, undeclared war known as the Quasi-War. U.S. and French negotiators restored peace with the Convention of 1800, also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine. Three [more] Frigates is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over time. Alien & Sedition Acts: series of four laws passed by the U.S. Congress in 1798 amid widespread fear that war with France was imminent. The four laws–which remain controversial to this day–restricted the activities of foreign residents in the country and limited freedom of speech and the press. Virginia & Kentucky Resolves: protests against the limitations on civil liberties contained in the Alien and Sedition Acts rather than expressions of full-blown constitutional theory. Interposition & Nullification: Interposition refers to the right of the states to protect their interests from federal violations deemed by those states to be dangerous or unconstitutional. Nullification is the theory that states can invalidate federal law it considers unconstitutional. Election of 1800: “Second American Revolution”: Vice President Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party defeated incumbent President John Adams of the Federalist Party. The election was a political realignment that ushered in a generation of Democratic-Republican leadership. Midnight Judges: judicial appointments made by President John Adams just before he was succeeded by President Thomas Jefferson John Marshall: American politician and lawyer who served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.

Andrew Jackson Presidency (1829-1837)  John C. Calhoun- As a young congressman from South Carolina, he helped steer the United States into war with Great Britain and established the Second Bank of the United States. Martin Van Buren– 8th president of the U.S The Petticoat Affair- The Petticoat Affair (also known as the Eaton Affair), was a political scandal involving members of President Andrew Jackson’s Cabinet and their wives, from 1829 to 1831. Led by Floride Calhoun, wife of Vice President John C. Nullification Crisis- a confrontation between the state of South Carolina and the federal government in 1832–33 over the former’s attempt to declare null and void within the state the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Ordinance of Nullification- The Ordinance of Nullification declared the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state borders of South Carolina Compromise of 1833-  Most importantly, the Tariff of 1833 guaranteed that all tariff rates above 20% would be reduced by one-tenth every two years with the final reductions back to 20% coming in 1842. The Indian Removal Act of 1830– The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830, authorizing the president to grant unsettled lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy. Cherokee Nation v Georgia– The Cherokee Nation sought a federal injunction against laws passed by the U.S. state of Georgia depriving them of rights within its boundaries, but the Supreme Court did not hear the case on its merits. Worcester v Georgia- the Supreme Court in Worcester v. Georgia ruled that because the Cherokee Nation was a separate political entity that could not be regulated by the state, Georgia’s license law was unconstitutional and Worcester’s conviction should be overturned. Trail of Tears- The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of approximately 60,000 Native Americans between 1830 and 1850 by the United States government. Veto of National Bank re-charter- Andrew Jackson vetoed the bill re-chartering the Second Bank in July 1832 by arguing that in the form presented to him it was incompatible with “justice,” “sound policy” and the Constitution. Pet Banks- Pet banks is a derogatory term for state banks selected by the U.S. Department of Treasury to receive surplus Treasury funds in 1833. Specie Circular- The Specie Circular is a United States presidential executive order issued by President Andrew Jackson in 1836 under the Coinage Act. It required payment for government land to be in the gold and silver Distribution Act of 1836- In June of 1836, Congress passed the Distribution Act which called for the distribution of the accumulated treasury surplus to be distributed to the states on January 1 of 1837. The surplus was to be transferred to state banks which were to make payment to the State governments in specie (gold and silver). Fletcher v Peck -where the supreme court first ruled a state law unconstitutional. Also said that Native Americans didn’t hold complete title to land Burr Conspiracy– a plot alleged to have been planned by Aaron Burr, he was faced with treason from Thomas Jefferson for trying to take land from the south for himself  James Wilkinson– an American soldier who was involved with several scandals and controversies. Burr sent him a coded letter, called the Cipher Letter, outlining his plans of treason. Acted as a spy to see what Burr was planning. Impressment of American Seamen– British sending officers to board American ships and inspect the crew and seize sailors accused of being deserters from British sailors. Order in Council (1806) which had declared all ports from Brest to the Elbe to be under a state of blockade Continental System- (also called continental blockade) foreign policy of Napolean Bonaparte against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic wars  The Milan Decree- The Milan Decree stated that no country in Europe was to trade with the United Kingdom. Ordered by Napolean Bonaparte. The Embargo Act of 1807– The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general trade embargo on all foreign nations that was enacted by the US Congress. Marbury vs Madison –The 12th Amendment to the constitution was the right to vote the President and the Vice President  Essex Junto- a powerful group of New England Federalists Party lawyers, merchants, and politicians Tertium Quid- refers to various factions of the Democratic-Republican Party in the United States from 1804 to 1812. In Latin, tertium quid means “the third something”. Quid was a disparaging term that referred to cross-party coalitions of Federalists and moderate Democratic-Republicans. Barbary Pirates- Muslim pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa –Stephen Decatur was a naval officer  Presley O’Bannon was a military officer and was known for the First Barbary War Louisiana Purchase- 15 million dollar purchase from France in 1803 bought by Thomas Jefferson Hamilton Burr Duel- was fought at Weehawken, New Jersey, and was about a long and bitter rivalry between the two. It ended with Hamilton losing his life. Election of 1804– Thomas Jefferson won the presidency and Aaron Burr as Vice President  Lewis and Clark Expedition– Meriwether Lewis & William Clark up the Missouri River to the Rockies; down the Columbia River to the Pacific and back (1804-1806)  -first to cross over the new western land after the Louisiana Purchase Zebulon Pike Expedition– military part sent out to explore the south and west of the recent Louisiana Purchase Yazoo Land Fraud- Georgia legislators were bribed in 1795 to sell most of the land now making up the state of Mississippi (then a part of Georgia’s western claims) to four land companies for the sum of $500,000, far below its potential market value Thomas Jefferson Presidency (1801-1809): March 4, 1801, when he was inaugurated as the third President of the United States and ended on March 4, 1809. Aaron Burr: Vice-president James Madison Secretary of State Albert Gallatin Secretary of the Treasury (persuades Jefferson not to abolish the National Bank) Meriwether Lewis Attack on the CourtsCutting Costs: measures may include laying off employees, reducing employee pay, closing facilities, streamlining the supply chain, downsizing to a smaller office, or moving to a less expensive building or area, reducing or eliminating outside professional services, such as advertising agencies and contractors, Judiciary Act of 1802: federal statute, enacted on April 29, 1802, to reorganize the federal court system. James Madison Presidency (second term) John Quincy Adams Secretary of State   John C. Calhoun Secretary of War   Rush – Bagot Treaty (1818)-took place between the United States and Great Britain following the War of 1812 and its goal was to significantly eliminate both countries’ burgeoning naval fleets stationed in the Great Lakes. Both nations aimed to ease tensions as a way to prevent another Anglo-American war. Anglo-American Convention set the western boundary between the United States and British North America (later Canada) at the forty-ninth parallel up to the Rocky Mountains. Both agreements reflected the easing of diplomatic tensions that had led to the War of 1812 and marked the beginning of Anglo-American cooperation.First Seminole War Andrew Jackson-a conflict between U.S. armed forces and the Seminole Indians of Florida that is generally dated to 1817–18 and that led Spain to cede Florida to the United States., Jackson was sent down to Fort Scott because of Seminole retaliatory strikes against the United States in late 1817. General Jackson concluded that it was necessary for the United States to invade Spanish territory and forcibly take control of Pensacola, thereby dispersing (or killing) the Indians gathered there.Transcontinental Treaty 42⁰N- Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain.[Economic] Crisis of 1819- The Panic of 1819 was the first widespread and durable financial crisis in the United States and some historians have called it the first Great Depression. It was followed by a general collapse of the American economy that persisted through 1821.In 1819, the impressive post-War of 1812 economic expansion ended. Banks throughout the country failed; mortgages were foreclosed, forcing people out of their homes and off their farms. Falling prices impaired agriculture and manufacturing, triggering widespread unemployment.National Bank Crisis (1819)   – As the economy ground to a halt in 1819, many people in the U.S. did not have the money to pay off their loans. The Bank of the United States, as well as state and private banks, began recalling loans, demanding immediate payment. Missouri Compromise (1820)-The Missouri Compromise was United States federal legislation that admitted Maine to the United States as a free state, simultaneously with Missouri as a slave state, thus maintaining the balance of power between North and South in the US Senate.In 1854, the Missouri Compromise was repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Monroe Doctrine- The Monroe Doctrine is a key part of U.S. foreign policy. President James Monroe issued the policy in 1823. It stated that North and South America were no longer open to colonization. It also declared that the United States would not allow European countries to interfere with independent governments in the Americas.Election of 1824 (“Corrupt Bargain”- none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson.