Exam 1

Exam 3:


MC Answers:


  • TRUE: Ospreys are eagle size Raptors that feed almost exclusively on fish

  • TRUE: new Caledonian Crow sometimes make their own tools

  • TRUE: poison arrow frogs use warning coloration to avoid predation (aposematic coloration)

  • TRUE: Australian cuttlefish can change color to match their background

  • TRUE: American bitterns are Heron like birds that use  camouflage to “hide in the open”

  • TRUE: honey bees use the waggle dance when the food source is a short distance from the hive

  • FALSE: the leafcutter ants have been practicing agriculture for approximately 10,000 years

  • Great tit birds are common in Eurasian woodlands and Gardens, eat insects and seeds, nest in cavities and birdhouses, and make good model organisms

  • many animals forage and patches of food what is the potential cost of an animal traveling between patches?  the risk of predation and energy expended traveling

  • which of the following animals feeding modes is  most closely correlated with the need to search for specific elements such as sodium in the diet?  Herbivores  specifically moose needing sodium from aquatic plants

  • in which of the following would an animal be risk prone in regards to forging a decisions (i.e. is willing to risk getting nothing if a  food Bonanza is the alternate possibility)? a starving animal

  • the bird group that is believed to be the most intelligent are crows and jays new Caledonian crows are known to make tools

  • Which of the following describes the relationship between the size of the hippocampus of the brain and the extent to which corvid birds species store food?  hippocampal volume and storing food are positively correlated

  • optimal foraging models predict that the decision to add a less profitable prey (type 2)  item do the diet depends on the encounter rate with prey type 1 the more profitable

  • the public information model of foraging behavior is best shown by Osprey flight orientation after observing neighbors returning with food

  • in red-eye tree frogs wasps and snakes are the most common predators of tadpoles

  • which of the following are likely to influence the flight initiation distance of prey Predator speed distance to prey refuge, and directness of Predator attack

  • Which of the following is probably the best explanation for tail flagging Behavior? it tells the Predator that the prey is strong so abandon the chase

  • Thomson’s gazelle engage in approach behavior when confronted with cheetahs

  • which of the following prey behaviors is  least likely to deter a predator once the prey has been spotted?  Camouflaging

  • Animal who wants to avoid detection by a predator could use cryptic Behavior such as camouflaging and choose a hidden place to rest

  • honey bees are able to communicate to Nest mates the distance a food sources from the hive by the duration of the straight run in the waggle dance

  • a characteristic of the caste system of leaf-cutter ants is that a queen is  the sole reproductive individual, large workers transport leaves, smaller workers stay in the nest and tend to the garden

  • In herring gulls the head toss is used by females to solicit copulation and by chicks to solicit food from parents

  • A raven that  yells at a food source is most likely a juvenile trying to attract other juvenile Ravens for support

  • when vervet monkeys hear the bark call that signals a leopard is approaching it runs and climbs up a tree

  • which of the following is not a characteristic of the attine leaf-cutter ants?  the larvae are fed With bits of leaves that are harvested by the workers

  • When a vervet monkey here’s the cough called that signals an eagle is approaching it looks up and then hides and shrubs

  • if a Food Patch is a moderate distance from The Hive the honey bees use the sickle dance tocommunicate with that mates

  • The angle from the vertical of the straight run in the honey bee waggle dance communicates the position of the food in relation to the hive and sun

  • If the two-part sound-producing organ in songbirds is similar in all species how is  Birdsong so variable?  it is because some birds have both sides equally dominant, some have one side dominant, and some Alternate which side is dominant

  • Black-backed gulls use the choke call to Signal Nest site preference

  • when a female Herring Gull enters the territory of a male for the first time she adopt a submissive posture

  • the nesting success of goals on Apple door island is best described as low

  • The Isle of Shoals is located off the coast of New Hampshire

  • optimal foraging model – each food is assigned an energy value an encounter rate and a handling time

  • marginal value model –   a Forger derive less food from a patch the longer it stays there

  • nutrient constraint model –  optimal foraging may not always be possible because certain substances are difficult to find

  • risk sensitive foraging model - An animal will make food choices based on its hunger state

  • public information model -  animals will use behavior of conspecifics to assess the environment


Short Answer:


  • Search images is the mental image of a prey that a predator has. it grow stronger each time and success

  • the anti-predator behavior of Bombardier beetles:  they release a chemical deterrent which gets mixed with in their abdomen

  •  caching behavior is storing food for later access and is most likely scene in birds and squirrels

  • Predator handling time is the amount of time it takes to take down kill and eat prey

  • Puffins nesting high up on cliffs in order to stay out of reach of predators is a good example of an animal using a safe place to Nest / rest

  • Stridulation  is when leafcutter ants Wiggles their abdomen up and down causing the least to vibrate they use this to communicate where food and leaves are

  • the syrinx  is a two-part sound-producing organ in Birds that is analogous to the larynx in mammals

  • Honey bees perform the round dance to tell other bees of short-distance food patches near the hive

  • upright posture display in goals communicates an aggressive stance used to show dominance or protect / claim territory.  it is an upright head straight neck and Wing slightly forward stance

  • a pheromone is a chemical released by an animal to communicate with another conspecific

  • John Krebs research used a bird perched above a sort of conveyor belt on which there were two food types. The first food type was a large meal worm the second  food type was a small meal worm. he then put out the two types of food at varying amounts. Crabs found that encounter rate plus energy expenditure of the food determine which prey the bird took. Krebs work was huge breakthrough in optimal foraging Theory.