English Grammar and Vocabulary Guide for Language Learners


  • Brought the house down (excited the audience) === hizo vibrar al publico
  • Sang one’s heart out (sang with her full effort and energy) === cantó con todo el corazón
  • Stole the show (was the outstanding performer) === robó el show
  • Keep one’s feet on the ground (have a sensible attitude) === mantener los pies en la tierra
  • Sweep the board (won all the major prizes) === llevarse todos los premios

Word Formation

Amazing, collection, international, visitors, different, movements, installations, significant, entrance, daily

Phrasal Verbs

  • Brought out → Llevado a cabo
  • Sign up → inscribirse
  • Put off → posponer
  • Success down
  • Called off = cancelado
  • Put sth down to → atribuir a


  • Live on
  • (This book is) out of (print)
  • (He plays a gang leader) on (screen…)
  • Charming in
  • Was out of
  • Centre of attention


Amused performance, animated, appearing, applied, audiences, authentic, awards, backing, book (book tickets), box-office, broadsheet, film, career, closely, columns, combined, come, composer, convincing, copy, coverage, current, developed, documentary, download, earned, editorial, enhance, equipped, eye, facial, fields, forecast, gifted, glossy, greatly, headlines, highlights, integrate, interact, led, lines, morning, office, outstanding, production, recording, released, roles, satisfied ending, step, tabloid, top character, true style, viewing, virtual

Passive Voice

Subject + Verb + Object → Subject + Verb + Agent

Ex: G. Eiffel built the Eiffel Tower in 1889 → The Eiffel Tower was built by G. Eiffel in 1889.

  • Present simple = writes → is written
  • Present continuous = is writing → is being written
  • Past simple = wrote → was written
  • Past perfect = had written → had been written
  • Present perfect = has written → has been written
  • Future simple = will write → will be written
  • Infinitive = has to write → has to be written
  • Modal verbs = might write → might be written… BY + person…..WITH + instrument, material, ingredient

Impersonal/Personal Passive Constructions

Active: People expect that Adele will sing the song.

Personal passive construction: Adele is expected to sing the song.

Impersonal passive construction: It is expected that Adele will sing the song.


Structure: have/having/has/had + object + past participle

Ex: Jim is painting the living room → Bob is having the living room painted.

Active, Passive

  • Present simple: tunes his piano → has his piano tuned
  • Present continuous: is tuning his piano → is having his piano tuned
  • Past simple: tuned his piano → had his piano tuned
  • Past continuous: was tuning his piano → was having his piano tuned
  • Future simple: will tune his piano → will have his piano tuned
  • Future continuous: will be tuning his piano → will be having his piano tuned
  • Present perfect: has tuned his piano → has had his piano tuned
  • Present perfect cont.: has been tuning his piano → has been having his piano tuned
  • Past perfect: had tuned his piano → has had his piano tuned
  • Past perfect cont.: had been tuning his piano → had been having his piano tuning
  • Infinitive: must tune his piano → must have his piano tuned
  • -ing form: worth tuning his piano → worth having his piano tuned
  • Modals: might tune his piano → might have his piano tuned

Wishes: WISH / IF ONLY


  • S + past simple / past continuous: I wish I was/were better at hockey (but I’m not). If only we weren’t all feeling so ill (To say we would like something to be different in a current situation)
  • S + could + bare infinitive: I wish I could swim (To express a wish/regret in the present about a lack of ability)
  • S + past perfect: I wish I had eaten fewer sweets when I was a child. (but I didn’t) If only I hadn’t given my tennis racquet away (but I did) (To express regret about something that happened or didn’t happen in the past)
  • S + would + bare infinitive: I wish you would cook me dinner sometimes! If only you wouldn’t borrow my things without asking me (To express: a polite command, a desire for a situation or a person’s behaviour to change)

Reflexive/Emphatic Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns: We use it when the subject and the object are the same.

Emphatic pronouns: We use it when we want to emphasize the subject/object.

  • I → myself
  • it → itself
  • you → yourself
  • we → ourselves
  • he → himself
  • you → yourselves
  • she → herself
  • they → themselves


  • My pair of scissors doesn’t cut well.
  • There are hardly any plasters left.
  • I’ve been going to a gym for some time now.
  • This recipe calls for a few drops of Tabasco sauce.
  • Let me give you a piece of advice.
  • I was waiting for a couple of hours.
  • Twenty Euros was a reasonable price for a good shirt.
  • My team are playing at their home ground tonight.
  • So many people are joining gyms these days.
  • The measles is a highly contagious disease.
  • The police are still searching for the thieves.
  • Jack wants a job in healthcare when he leaves school.
  • My doctor said my heartbeat was strong and regular.
  • David doesn’t have the self-care to keep to a diet.
  • I give pasta and rice to the local food bank.
  • A passer-by helped Sue when she broke her arm.
  • I spend an hour on my exercise bike three times a week.