30. The Physical Adaptation Source

31. Basic Assumption Physical features humans possess, especially those that are distinct from other creatures, may have been able to support speech production.

32.  our ancestors made a very significant transition to an upright posture, with bipedal (on two feet) locomotion, and a revised role for the front limbs.uBipedalism

33. Neanderthal Man

34. 4. The physical adaptation source

35. Human vs Neanderthal (Evidence of vocal tract)

36. The reconstructed vocal tract of a Neanderthal suggests that some consonant-like sound distinctions would have been possible.u

37.  In the study of evolutionary development, there are certain physical features, best thought of as partial adaptations, which appear to be relevant for speech. They are streamlined versions of features found in other primates. By themselves, such features would not necessarily lead to speech production, but they are good clues that a creature possessing such features probably has the capacity for speech.u

38.  Human teeth are upright, not slanting outwards like those of apes, and they are roughly even in height. Such characteristics are not very useful for ripping or tearing food and seem better adapted for grinding and chewing. They are also very helpful in making sounds such as f or v.uTeeth

39.  The human mouth is relatively small compared to other primates, can be opened and closed rapidly, and contains a smaller, thicker and more muscular tongue which can be used to shape a wide variety of sounds inside the oral cavity.u Human lips have more intricate muscle interlacing than is found in other primates and their resulting flexibility certainly helps in making sounds like p or b. uLips, Mouth and Tongue

40.  In addition, unlike other primates, humans can close off the airway through the nose to create more air pressure in the mouth. The overall effect of these small differences taken together is a face with more intricate muscle interlacing in the lips and mouth, capable of a wider range of shapes and a more rapid and powerful delivery of sounds produced through these different shapes.u

41. The tool-making source

42.  Speech and tool-making abilities are very close to one another in the left hemisphereu Lateralized brain: each hemisphere of brain has its own functions alternatively u Preferential right-handedness uThe tool-making source: As early humans’ hands became occupied with tool use, they were less able to use hand gestures, so speech became a necessity uOther Sources of Language

43.  The innateness hypothesis states that language is endemic to all humans.uUniversal in form u Pre-programmed uHard-wired like in a computer u Innate uThe Genetic Source: a crucial genetic mutation arose which gave humans the unique ability to produce and understand language. This means that language is uOther Sources of Language

44. There are approximately 6,300 languages spoken on earth now, and an even greater number spoken in the pastØWas there one or more than one “invention” of language? Ø Was there one or more than one original language? ØHypotheses Regarding Language Diversity

45. Latin Roman German Indian Celtic Iranian Beltic 6 Primative languages

46.  Many more languages were spoken in the past because humans lived in small tribes (lots of different languages) rather than in large states (with one common language)u All of the original first languages have disappeared u Language is a relatively recent phenomena u Language first appeared 50,000 years ago u Early humans first appeared 150,00 years ago uLinguistic Diversity

47.  Monogenesis: mono = “one” genesis = “birth” There was a single, original language spoken by a single group of Homo sapiens as early as 50,000 years ago which gave rise to all human languages spoken on earth today. The Mother Tongue Hypothesis – this original language diverged through time and distance to form many different languages. All of today’s languages descended from this one language. Out of Africa Theory – General theory of human origin arising in Africa; language may have arisen here as well.uLinguistic Diversity

48. Polygenesis: poly = “many” genesis = “birth” The Candelabra Hypothesis: The hypothesis of parallel evolution of language in more than one place and by more than one group of Homo sapiens. Each of these languages would have diverged into many forms. The major language groups of today would be descended from these separate mother tongues.uLinguistic Diversity

49.  Anthropological linguists see language as a window into the past. Language changes much more slowly than the environment in which it is spoken, so you can learn a lot about the cultural history of the people who speak a language.u Comparative linguists try to trace the original mother tongue (or tongues). Scholars compare modern languages and try to reconstruct ancient ones. uComparative and Anthropological Linguistics

50. The origin of language Theories Characteristics Criticism Development The divine source Suddenly (monogenetic) The natural sound source (bow-wow/pooh-pooh) Existence of onomatopoeia Soundless things and abstract concepts Produced with intake of breath Gradually The social interaction source (yo-he-ho) Early humans lived in groups Other primates also live in groups and use grunts Gradually The physical adaptation source (teeth, lips, mouth, larynx & pharynx) There’s evidence for the evolutionary changes These changes would not themselves lead to speech production Gradually The tool-making source (brain) Accounts for structural organisation of language Gradually The genetic source (innateness theory) Automatic set of developments in young children Suddenly