How do young children learn? 

  • they respond to meaning even if they don’t understand individual words

  • they often learn indirectly, they take information from all sides that is to say that they learn from everything around them 

  • they have a need for individual attention and approval from the teacher

  • their attention is limited, they can easily get bored, that why activities must be extremely engaging

  • they need to work individually and in groups to develop good relationships

  • the classroom must be bright and colorful, with windows so children can see outside   



  • Are students who are by nature solitary, they prefer to avoid groups

  • They are confident and independent in their own abilities

  • they tend to be cool and pragmatic

MOTIVATION: is essential to success! it is some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do things to achieve something 

f students were offered the choice of two languages to learn which one would they choose?and why? Are cultural images associated with English positive or negative?

significant other: the attitude to language learning will be affected by the influence of people close to the student. 

if parents or peers approve of language learning

if they think that maths is more important 

his/her teacher 

his or her attitude to language and task of learning is vital 

he/she must show enthusiasm for English learning 

the method

both teacher and student must be comfortable with the method being used, they must feel confident with it

CHAPTER 6 : POPULAR METHODOLOGY  ( THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH or CLT COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING ) put the emphasis on language functions rather than grammar and vocabulary.

COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES: Are designed to improve language fluency, students have a desire to communicate something , they are involved in real communication, they simulate situations, for example an activity can be a role play. to buy an airline ticket they have to create a scene at the airport.

The use of language is based on content not form, the teacher doesn’t intervene to stop the activity 

NON COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES: Are intended to ensure correctness students don’t have a communicative purpose, activities are based on the form, the structure of the language and not content like in communicative activities, finally in these activities the teacher occasionally intervenes 


It is when the learner applies a rule in contexts where it shouldn’t be applied.

for instance in past tense the student adds ED (idi) to all the verbs. come comed go goed


Learners with emotional and behavioural disorders are students whose educational performance is affected over a long period of time by some conditions for example 

the inability to learn, they can’t maintain a good relationship with the teacher and their peers

show inappropriate type of behaviour

they suffer from depression and unhappiness

they have a tendency to develop physical symptoms or pain or fear

STUDENTS WITH SPEECH OR LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENTS.Language is the communication of ideas using symbols and includes written language, sign language, gesture, and other modes of communication in addition to oral speech. Speech is the formation and sequencing of sounds. There are many kinds of speech disorders. The most common are articulation (or phonological) disorders, such as omissions, distortions, or substitutions of sounds. For example, some students have difficulty pronouncing r’s, saying “sowee” for “sorry.”   ON THE OTHER HAND LANGUAGE DISORDERS ARE Impairments of the ability to understand language or to express ideas in one’s native language 

ARD N 3 

How adults learn? The y can engage engage with abstract thought. 

The y have expectations about the learning process 

Adults tend to be more disciplined than some teenagers and they can struggle against boredom 

They also have a clear understanding of why they are learning

However, adults sometimes can make learning and teaching problematic because they can be critical of teaching methods due to their previous experience

They also May have experienced failure or criticism at school which makes them under-confident about learning a language 

Finally they worry that letal say  their intellectual powers May be dismishing with age 


They are like conformists because they enjoy the social aspects of learning

They like to learn from direct experience 

They are Interested in language use and language as communication rather than language as a system 

Last but not least they enjoy games and group work in class 


iNtrinsic comes from within the individual for examplea person might be motivated by the enjoyment of the learning process or a desire to make themselves feel better 

EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION is caused by outside factors for instance they need to pass the exam, a future travel 

DEFINE APPROACH,refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning 

It describes how language is used and how uta constituyen parts interlock 

Method is the practical realisation of an approach for example the types of activities, the role of teacher and learners the kind of material that will be helpful 

PROCEDURE is an ordered sequence of techniques for instance first  you do this, then you do that …

TECHNIQUE is a single activity for example qfinger activity or fill in the blanks 


Slips are mistakes that the student can correct himself ERRORS are mistakes that can’t be corrected by the student because it need further explanation by the teacher 

ATTEMPTS are when the student tries to say something but he/she doesnt know the correct way of saying  it 


HOW DO ADOLESCENTS LEARN? The most important thing is that if they  engaged they have a great capacity to learn, a great potential for creativity. That’s why activities and materials must be relevant and involving to provoke students engagement

they also must be encouraged to respond to text and situations with their own thoughts and experiences 

  MOREOVER identity has to be forged among classmates and friend. for teenagers peer approval is very important 

LAST BUT NOT LEAST teachers must give them tasks which they are able to do, because if they can’t they can frustrate , they can feel frustration or humiliation.CONFORMISTS: They prefer to emphasize learning about language over learning to use it. they are dependent on authority, they like to work in non communicative classrooms, doing what they are told.they prefer to see well organised teachers.

define motivation : motivation is a kind of internal drive that pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something, an objective or a goal. 

WHAT IS THE LEXICAL APPROACH ACCORDING TO DAVE WIILLIS?it is based on the assertion that language is formed by multi-word prefabricated chunks.that is to say that a language is not only formed by traditional grammar and vocabulary. language is formed by lexical phrases like collocations or fixed-phases. for instance instead of teaching will for the future, the teacher shows typical utterances such as I’ll be back in a minute, I´ll see what I can do, I’ll be there for you…L1 INTERFERENCE: It’s when L1 and English come into contact with each other and this provokes errors in a learner’s use of English.first,It can operate at the level of sounds, for example arabic speakers confuse /f/ with /v/ they want to say very but they say ferry.second, at the level of grammar for example Japanese have problems with article usage because they have a different system of reference

finally it can be at the level of word usage, that is to say words that sound similar but the meaning is different for instance false friend or false cognates embarassed is similar to embarazada but of course the meaning is totally diferent 


He felt that much of human learning is not shaped by its consequences but is more efficiently learned directly from a model Example A physical education teacher demonstrates Jumping Jacks and students imitate. Bandura said that students don’t have to Through. go a shaping process because they Can reproduce the correct response Immediately


IS The Impact That physical or mental limitations have on daily life activities.

DISABILITY Describes The person’s limitation.


1. Describing Learners: Adults are not entirely problem-free learners. What characteristics can

make learning and teaching problematic?

They can be critical of teaching methods. due to previous learning experiences.

They may have experienced failure or criticism at school which makes them under confident about learning a language. They worry That Their Intellectual powers may be dinished with age.

 2. Learner Styles: Communicative learners. 

COMMUNICativE LEARNERS They are interested in social interaction with other speakers of the language

• They aren’t Interested in how The language works. • They are happy To operate without the guidance of a teacher.

They have a certain degree of Confidence And willingness and They are language use oriented.


GOAL AND GOAL SETTING Teachers can help STudents in The achievement of short term goals

short-term Goals are much closer to the student’s day to day reality  It’s easier to focus on The end of The week than the end of the year 

Learning ENVIRONMENT There’s a lot That can be done in the Classroom regarding its physical appearance and The emotional atmosphere of the lesson 

– Walking inTo an attractive Classroom at The beginning Of the course may help to increase motivation and

Also Classrooms can be decorated with Visual material to make it more agreeable

Last but not least Teachers have to be very careful about how they respond to Students, especially when Giving feedback and Correction

INTERESTING CLASSES. – Students need to be interested The subject They are studying and in the activities and topics They are presented with

The teacher must provide them with a variety of subjects and exercises to keep them engaged.

. Popular methodology (Audio-lingualism): What is Audio-lingualism?  What does it rely on?


It uses a continuous process of positive reinforcement to engender good habits in language learners 

It relies on drills to form habits.

The drills use substitution so, in small steps the student is Constantly learning

Avoid The possibility of making mistakes.

 Mistakes and Feedback (Feedback during accuracy work): How can teachers show incorrectness?

REPEATING: Ask The student to repeat what They have said.

 2 -ECHOING we repeat what The STudent has said

emphasising the part which is wrong.

3 – STATEMENT AND QUESTION We say That STh is not right or ask The rest If They ThinK it’s Correct.

 4. EXPRESSION (1f you know The Class well) You can make a facial expression or a gesture, to indicate Something Is wrong

 5-HINTING You Can say the word “Tense” to make them Think about the correct tense.

6- REFORMULATION is to repeat what the student has said Correctly wiThOut making a big issue of it.

 6. Educational Psychology (Cognitive Theories of Learning): Account for semantic, procedural, dual-code and episodic memory. 

Episodic MEMORY Is our memory of personal experiences, Is mental movie of Things we Saw  or heard. SEMANTIC MEMORY Contains generalized information we know like concepts principles or rules

PROCEDURAL MEMO contains the ability of knowing how to drive ride a bike.

Physical an health  impairments. Explain.