STROKE:Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called

ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. “Mini-strokes” or transient ischemic attacks
 (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted.Parts of the body affected:Brain.Signs and symptoms:Speech difficulties, dysphasia (impaired ability to talk, read and write)_Facial paralysis on the affected side_Visual deficits_Impaired movement of the limbs on one side of the body (hemiplegia)_Loss of bladder/bowel control (incontinence).Care plan:The nurse should regularly check the patient’s vital signs: blood pressure, pulse and respiration. Moreover, nurses will monitor level of response of the patient._If the patient experiences swallowing difficulties, these should be assessed by the dietician or nurse before giving oral feeding. Oral intake may be given via nasogastric tube._When the patient has speech impairment, the nurse could write a referral to the speech and language therapist._Some patients who have had a stroke experience urinary incontinence. It is recommended to use a bedpan or nappies instead of inserting a urinary catheter._The patient experiences a lack of mobility on one side of the body. Physiotherapist can assist patients to restore their mobility._The patient might need assistance to dress and wash. Health care assistants will be able to provide help to patients in this aspect of care_Doctors will prescribe medications to treat patients’ conditions._Some of the nurses’ responsibilities with this type of patients are preventing pressure sores and ensuring the oral intake is adequate.To take into account:CT scan may be performed to determine the location and type of CVA._There are three main causes of strokes, and the treatment could change depending on the cause.

PRESSURE SORES:Bedsores.they occur when the skin breaks because of too long tmime pressure on the skin.they can start with readness of the skind and become an open wound or necrosis of subcutaneous tissue.Part bdy affected:Heels,buttocks,sacrum,elbows,spine,hip.Prevention:Position should be changed frequently._keep risk regions clean and dry._observe pressure areas._use pressure relieving aids like special mattress,pillows to relieve pressure on risk regions.

FAINT:Parts of the body affected:Nervous system: brain and nerves._Cardiovascular system: heart, blood vessels, arteries and veins.Signs and symptomS:Loss of consciousness._Previous signs to a faint: sweating, blurred vision, paleness, nausea and dizziness.Care plan:Assess the level of consciousness and check his vital signs (pulse and respiration)._Lie the casualty down looking upwards, and elevate his legs above heart level._Turn his head to one side to avoid airway obstruction or in case of vomiting._Loosen the casualty’s clothes in his waist and neck to allow easy breathing._Open the window if you are indoors, or remove him from the sun if you are outdoors._Stand clear of people around the casualty._Do not administer anything by mouth until the casualty has fully recovered his level of consciousness._Once the casualty has fully recovered, avoid sudden movements to prevent a new episode.To take into account: further investigations are required if the casualty has any of the following conditions:Elderly people.Repetitive episodes.Severe trauma.Suspect a cardiovascular or neurological disorder.The casualty can help prevent new episodes avoiding the trigger causes, such as:Stress, excessive heat, excessive physical exercise and changing the posture abruptly.





ADVICE:Please don’t strain your eyes by learning in poor light__you should try to eat more fresh fruit an vegetable_you could try nicotine patches_you must keep all medicine out of reach of children_what about writing a letter to your sister_you’ll recover more quickly if you try to get some exercise_don’t hesitate to call us if her condition changes_it would be a good idea to stop smocking_have you tried swimming?_we’d like you to do these exercises every day_i strongly suggest that you reduce the amount of beer you drink_do u think you could lose a bit of weight?_you amy find it helpful to raise the head of your bed_it would be good4u to drink more water.

WHO/WHAT:Who came last night_what did the doctor and the midwife want to speak about_what were they doing_what kind of fruit do you like_how is the patient_who give you the pill_why is the nurse so scared_when are you coming back_who are you talking with_how much did you pay.__who did you phone_what are you doing_what do you want_what did you buy_what did you use_who has got your pillow_who has cleaned the bathroom_who saw the.._what is there for dessert.

PASTILLAS:For oral use_swallow capsules with water_do not chew_2 capsules to be taken every 4h_do not exeed 8 capsules in 24h_do not give to children under 5 years_to be taken every 3to5h as required to according to the severity of the symptoms_do not use more than the started dose_this medicine is not recommended for children under 5 years_may cause drowsiness_avoid driving or operating machinery when taking this medicine.-_u need to take 4 capseles,3 times a day at meal-times.