Effective Presentation and Facilitation Techniques

Chapter 1: Individual Presentation

Storytelling – transmission of knowledge, emotional connections, composed of familiar elements

Elements of a story – message, context, character, and conflict

Tailoring stories – start in an impactful way, end with main intended takeaways

Chapter 2: Topic Research

Conceptual Framework – system of contents and theories that explain the main things to be studied (key factors, concepts, variables) and the presumed relationship among them. They clarify the content and assist the definition of the research topic + literature needed. Provides order, establish connection

Concepts of Contextual Frameworks:

  • Variables
  • Relationship among variables
  • Conditions under which they operate
  • Support of theories and beliefs

Source of Information:

  • Experiential knowledge (background of the researcher)
  • Literature review (past research works)
  • Subject matter experts (opinion, insight, critical analysis of SMEs with extensive experience on the topic)


Chapter 3: Stage Fright

Causes of Stage Fright: unprepared, embarrassment, unknown

Techniques to Manage Anxiety: depersonalization, behavior modification, practice

Techniques for Nervous Behaviors: fidgeting, trembling, quivering voice

Chapter 4: Persuasion

How to Deliver a Point to the Audience: shared experiences, common goals, qualifications, use contrast, balance logical (data, facts) with emotional (metaphors, provoking questions, benefits) appeals

Potential Problems and Solutions

Logical resistance, Emotional resistance, Practical resistance

The Communication Process

Sender (encoding) the message – receiver (recording)

ACTIVE LISTENING (eye contact, interest, questions, paraphrasing, do not interrupt)

Non-verbal Communication

Paralanguage – pitch, volume, intonation

Facial Expressions

Eye Contact

Physical Contact

Personal Appearance

Proxemics – use of space

Kinesics – body language

Chapter 5: Materials Preparation

One message per slide

  • Additional information in bullet points
  • Avoid huge titles, use contrast
  • Max 7 elements per slide
  • Only relevant pictures
  • Videos no longer than 7 minutes
  • Do activities – attention, reinforce, deeper understanding
  • Create worksheet to define an activity (define purpose, how to proceed, think of needed materials, debriefing questions)

Chapter 6: Facilitating Skills

Facilitator Skills: focus on improvement, willing to learn and adapt, ability to change

Facilitator Tasks

  • Design & plan: outcome in mind, structure, dynamics
  • Guide the process: participation, responsibility, record and respond
  • Create safe environment: ground rules, agenda
  • Prevent and solve issues: timing, group behavior, when to lead

Main Pitfalls

  • Lack of preparation
  • Not knowing the audience
  • Not managing the environment

Adult Learning

  • Experience
  • Questioning
  • Individual differences
  • Need to apply
  • Familiarity with tasks
  • Willingness

Types of Attendees

  • Argumentative: high tone, interruption, “yes but” – listen, show why is right, use authority
  • Positive: focused, good worker, responsible – give voice when there is silence, not give too much attention
  • Star: center of attention, opinionated, believes to know it all – correct mistakes, ask for respect, recommend reflecting before talking
  • Talkative: over-explains, go off-topic, expressive – do not interrupt them, ask them for respect and room for others
  • Shy: do not talk, only listen, may not solve their doubts – ask simple questions, insist on contribution, do not be judgmental
  • Absent: never participates, lack of participation, demotivated – reinforce participation, do not manifest in public the concern
  • Close-minded: disagrees, ask mentor for proves – demand solutions, explain importance of collaboration, provide proof

Chapter 7: Co-Presenting

Advantages – creativity, rescuing, support, materials management, less vulnerability

Challenges – coordination, lack of trust, showing off, no alignment, timings

Basics – involves trust, shared responsibilities, use talents and qualities

Points to Discuss – goals, strategy, agreements

Needed Agreements – content preparation, technicalities, rehearsal, common support

Ways of Co-Presenting – tag team, speak and comment, speak and chart, perform and comment, duet

During the Presentation – pay attention, use transition sentences, do not make rescues obvious, keep an eye on the audience

Pitfalls – blank, not clear, not paying attention

After Presentation – celebrate, feedback, agreements for future

Group Presentations – leader: coordinator, talent, order of content, congruency, smooth transitions, sharing airtime

Chapter 7: Facilitating Meetings

Meeting Roles (!!!)


  • Process and ground rules
  • Stays out of content
  • Protects participants
  • Encourages dialogue
  • Helps with consensus
  • Summarizes


  • Manager
  • Free to pursue ideas
  • States policies and constraints
  • Calls voting if needed


  • Group memory
  • Checks accuracy
  • Participates in discussion


  • Participates in discussion
  • Keeps time
  • Reminds others of schedules
  • Calls amount of time left


  • Take on responsibility for success
  • Keep facilitator out of content
  • Check that the scribe is accurate
  • Make suggestions