Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behaviour, both on the individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioural and social sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law.


This seemingly clear-cut legal definition of crime is explained in more detail below:    The basic maxim applicable to criminal law is “Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea”- an act does not make a man guilty of a crime unless his mind is also guilty. It can be seen therefore that there are two fundamental elements to a crime – a phsycyal element known as the “actus reus” and a mental element known “mens rea”. This can clearly be seen in a diagrammatic form: esquema.

MIRANDA WARMING: The Miranda Warning is a communication that the agents of policeman in The United States must do to every person who has been arrested.      The typical format of the Warning Elevated place is the following one:      You have the right to remain silence. Any thing that he says can and it will be used in his against in a court of justice. There has the right to speak with an attorney and that an attorney is present during any interrogation. If an attorney cannot pay, one paid for the government will be assigned to him. Has he still had the before mentioned rights clear?    It was established after the Supreme Court of the United States was resolving in the case ” Elevated place against Arizona ” of 1966. 


How do medical examiners refer to the body of an unknown male or female? John and Jane Doe.    Is there any bleeding when the incisions are made? Why?No, because the bood is coagulal.     What’s the diference between algor mortis, rigor mortis, and livor mortis?

ALGOR MORTIS: reduction of the corporal temperature after the death of the individual.

RIGOR MORTIS: State of inflexibility and inflexibility in the extremities caused by a chemical change in the muscles after the death that is in the habit of appearing at 3-4 hours.

LIVOR MORTIS: it is one of the recognizable signs of death and that characterizes for a reddish – purple coloration of the parts declines of the body owed to an accumulation of the blood in these zones.

What conclusions can you draw from the following observations?

-The lungs are pink: not smoken.

-The liver is orange, big, and fat: heavy drinker.

-The cartilages that join the ribs to the breastbone hace turned into bone: really old.

CRIMINAL LAW: the police need to have probable cause – jai for booking – his report to a prosecutor – the suspect’s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt / several counts – the suspected is indicted and arraigned – ask for your plea / will set bail – means of a plea bargain – the case can be dismissed

PHRASAL VERBS: dredged up – put together – came up – turned out – back me up – draw up – step down – held up – turned over – give yourself up – are rounding up – will have to do away – made off 

AUTOPSY: autopsy means “an examination of the body after death”. It is special surgical operation, performed by specially-trained physicians, on a dead body. Its purpose is to learn the truth about the person’s health during life, and how the person really died. 

EJERCICIO: a pathologist is a physican.. – a coroner is a political…while a medical examiner….called a diener – depends on the jurisdiction – Suspicion of foul play – some public health concern – signing the certificate – problem with an open casket – the legal next-of-kin.

GERUNDIO/INFINITIVO: meeting – performing / determine – stealing – traveling – making – to examine – hoping to determine – not to file – offered to look after – telling – when filing / prefere to be – no use asking / believing – meant ask – involves making / taking / weighing – sewing – from working – used to handling. 

CRIME TYPES: a felony (serius crime) – a mugger (thief who atacks people) – a pickpocket (thief who steals pockets) – a burglar (illegallly enters building) – a misdemeanour (action is slightly) – libel (by writting bad) – A shoplifter – a larcener (synnim of thief) – a robber (use violence) – slander (by saying bad) – a pilferer (steal small value) – perjury (telling lies) – an infraction (action breaks rule) – a capital ofense (crime punis) – defamation (by saying or writting bad). 

PERSON’S PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: may have been dysfunctional and the parents abusive in some way – serial killers were often pyromaniacs as children – others and see this self-serving – hostile and domineering – violence is instrumental – killer who meticulously – sociopaths are also pathological liars – in adicction, they are narcisisst – unlike psychotict, socipaths are not delusional – symptoms was a paranoid – hopelessness and suicidal – he aso had hypochondriac – his sister had a serious obsessive-compulsive – she was emotionally distant.

FORENSIC SCIENCE: in 2007 forensic psychology – the official cause forensic toxicology – in the 1950 forensic genetics – In the 9/11 forensic engineering – a noteworthy forensic entomology – notorious serial murderer forensic odontology – in 1975 forensic anthropology – this forensic science forensic pathologic.