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Reason and method
1.La structure of reason
The subject of knowledge could access knowledge in two ways: * The experience, which has a goal and a subjective component .* The reason that makes acts of understanding sentidos.La outside the experience can be misleading and therefore the faculty that knowledge is the razón.Hay two modes of knowledge through real reason:
* Intuition: It is an object whose intellectual vision is evident truths. All intellectual knowledge is deployed from the intuition of simple natures .* Deduction: This is the discover and explore the connections between intuitions and some others.
2.The method
The question of how the first method Descartes.El imposed was a matter of interest and to which all these authors concede a power especial.La cause is that the thinkers just broken with all authority in philosophy and need something that confiar.Descartes used as a model for his method using logic and axioms supported matemática.Se to deduce from them other verdades.Descartes believes that man can behave in any area of knowledge, always using the same method that seeks método.El Descartes must achieve real certainty, it must have in order, clarity and sencillez.Está consists of four rules: *
Evidence: there are k admitted only that k is presented to our intelligence with such clearly that no mistake occurs inthe evidence duda.La intuition .* Analysis: means division, you divide the compound ideas in simples.Sólo ideas and avoid the error.El goal is to divide the problem to get insight .*Summary: these form a chain of partial insights which will result in an intuition clear and free of errores.Se is a deductive process .* enumeration: it is through the entire process to be sure not to miss checking nada.Es around the proceso.Este is, according to Descartes, the only method of reason única.Ha been used successfully inthe mathematics and nothing prevents k is used successfully in other domains.
Doubt and the first truth
1.La methodical doubt
According to the rational, the intellect must find in himself the truths fundamentales.Este starting point has to be a truth that is absolutely necessary cierta.Para eliminate anything that dudar.La possible doubt of Descartes is: *
Universal: have to doubt everything .* Methodical:its purpose is to reach the truth, a truth firm which can not be doubted .* Theoretical: extends only to the level of theory or philosophical reflection. What doubt and why? Fallacies senses lead him to Delos Delos doubt éstos.La data provided by inability to distinguish waking from sleep leads him to doubt the existence of external reality .* Because sometimes we make mistakes in reasoning is even doubt the validity of the arguments .* The hypothesis maligno.Es spirit but an unlikely hypothesis which casts doubt on the validity of principles that are considered obvious.

The structure of reality: the three substances

It is a fundamental concept in the thinking of Descartes and defines it as “a thing that exists so that it needs no other to exist.” It would only be defined Dios.Pero substance this broad definition is also applicable to the res large (world) and the res cogitans (soul). The thinking substance or res cogitans: Alma.
Descartes thought thinks considers k ideas.El concept idea Descartes.En changes from Descartes’s thought falls on the philosophy of Descartes is ideas.La idealista.El great challenge to be overcome Descartes how to find a way out of the own subjectivity and get to know if there are objective things and how it is. Descartes distinguishes between three kinds of ideas:
adventitious, we can not affirm its validity since the existence of reality is subject to doubt.Factitious: those that build the mind from other ideas. Our minds are made up from other ideas. Inborn: those that thought itself has mismo.Algunas of these are the ideas that are in the ‘I think therefore I am “. The infinite substance, God. Is the idea of something very alo humano.Esta perfect and superior idea can not be adventitia and may not be from facticia.A dela innate idea of God demonstrates the existence of this dios.Para use different arguments: – epistemological argument. * I am a being that I doubt and, I am therefore imperfect .* It would not be possible to have the concept of the finite without the idea of the infinite, perfect .* The idea of infinity can not come from nothing from nothing is not nothing .* Nor can come about myself: I am finite and the finite can not come to the idea of infinity.
Argument dela chance .* I am a being not perfect .* Then I’ve created my mismo.Por therefore there must be a perfect being who gave me existence, God .- ontological argument .* All men have Dios.Un be an idea that has to exist not only in thought but in the realidad.Luego God exists not only in thought but also in reality. a. Extended substance or res extensa: World. Since Descartes, the existence of the world can be doubted. Descartes will need to demonstrate the existence of the world from the analysis of the ideas themselves thus from the analysis of the cogito, Descartes comes to proving the existence of God, a being that corresponds to something in the realidad.La world’s existence is proven, therefore, from the existence of Dios.Descartes conceives the world in terms of primary qualities (extension and motion) since they are objective and they alone can mathematizing and therefore, the only accessible to razón.Se is therefore a mechanistic conception of realidad.Descartes deduct the following principles will be the basis of his Physics: * Natural things are reduced to point masses moving in space .* Any action or reaction must be exercised by shock or impulse, in any case contact .* It is sufficient to describe mathematically the laws of such shares. * The principles governing the system are two: the principle of inertia and the principle of conservation of motion.